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In the early 1960s, Gabriele Veneziano proposed a model to explain the systematic relationship between the spin and the mass of certain short-lived 'hadrons,' which are any of a class of subatomic particles that interact by the strong interaction and, which turned out to be the quantized motion not of a particle or a point but of a 'string.' Later, it was realized that at higher energies his theory was "less accurate because [when] features at smaller distance scales are being probed...the flux tubes produced by the strong force are no longer strings" (Hooft 1997:157).   
In the early 1960s, Roger Penrose introduced new mathematical techniques to solve Einstein's equations where exact answers were unavailable because of asymmetry.
In the 1960s, Robert MacArthur and his colleagues invented simple holistic ecological models.  His program in population ecology was aimed at bringing community ecology, e.g., the study of ant colonies, into the modern synthesis.
In the 1960s, Ilya Prigogine theorized that the first cells were thermodynamic 'dissipative structures,' that is, they organized themselves, and with the influx of energy (in the form of food or sunlight), became more instead of less organized.
In 1961, Benjamin D. Hall and Sol Spiegelman, working with phage, published proof that messenger RNA carries a specific message, confirming Volkin's and Astrachan's results (Hall and Spiegelman 1961).
In 1961, Marshall Warren Nirenberg and J. Heinrich Matthaei deciphered the first code group, a sequence of nucleotides that specified the amino acid phenylalanine.  This they accomplished by adding artificial RNA, in this case, polytidylic acid, to a cell-free system in which the ribosomes would bind with the tRNA molecule complementary to the codon carrying the specific amino acid called for by the one-word message.  Their announcement set off a race to decipher the rest of the code by Brenner, Ochoa, Crick, and others (Nirenberg and Matthaei 1961).
In 1961, Peter Denis Mitchell, developing Keilin's idea of a respiratory chain in the context of oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation, postulated energy coupling by an ion gradient, which is known as the chemiosmotic hypothesis.   Mitchell proposed that electron transport and phosphorylation are not chemically linked, but rather coupled only by a transmembrane current of protons (Mitchell 1961).
In 1961, Wigner proposed that self-replication is probable in terms of quantum mechanics, assuming that living states exist (which is to say that the formation of a single protein molecule by random means is infinitely improbable)(Wigner 1961:168-181).
In 1961, David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel published results which showed that an anesthetized cat's visual cortex showed activity even though its brain waves showed it more asleep than awake.  Later, they determined that, in the physiology of vision, neurons respond first to dark edges, rather than a spot of light.

In 1961, Roger W. Sperry published results of his studies of lateralization in animal brains in which disconnected cerebral hemispheres could be taught in such a way that one hemisphere learned one response while the other hemisphere learned a different response.
In 1961, Richard C. Lewontin was the first to explicitly apply game theory to evolutionary biology, pitting species against nature and seeking survival strategies.
In 1961, Holland circulated a technical report entitled "A Logical Theory of Adaptive Systems Informally Described," in which he propounded a general theory of adaption, i.e., if an agent is going to be adaptive, it requires feedback.
In 1961, Gell-Mann and, independently, Yuval Ne'eman invented a three-dimensional symmetrical particle physics equivalent of the periodic table for 'baryons' and a similar one for mesons--hadrons consist of baryons and mesons--according to a field theory model Gell-Mann called the 'Eightfold way.'  Consisting of  Lie group SU(3), the simplest group which isn't a composite of SU(2) and SU(1), it has eight generators, two of which "represent isotopic spin and strangeness; the other six are rules for changing the value of the first two...during elementary particle interactions" (Crease and Mann 1986:266).  All the particles have the same spin (½) and the same parity (+1); two of the particles are at the center of a hexagon and the other six are at the points (Gell-Mann 1961:7-57; Ne'eman 1961:58-65).  The reality of the scheme for mesons was predicated on the existence of a new particle, 'omega-minus (or -negative),' which was confirmed three years later. 

In 1961, Sheldon Lee Glashow and Gell-Mann established that the dominant feature of the Yang-Mills strong interaction was its SU(3) symmetry (Glashow and Gell-Mann 1961:437-460). 

In 1961, Jeffrey Goldstone created a theorem in which he "generalized Nambu's work, using as his example a renormalizable theory of a complex spin-zero quantum field" (Brown et al. 1997b:483).  This massless particle of zero spin came to be known as the Nambu-Goldstone boson. 

In 1961, Vitalii Lazarevich Ginzburg suggested that the "enormous energy required to power a [radio] source like Cynus A might be provided by the gravitational contraction of the central part of the galaxy concerned" (Gribbin 1995:105).  In the following few years, this suggestion was developed by Shklovski, Fowler, Hoyle, Salpeter, Yakov B. Zel'dovich, Igor D. Novikov, and others who hooked up the discovery of quasars with black-holes lying at the heart of distant, i.e., young and gaseous, galaxies.

In 1961, E. A. Ohm reported ineliminatable microwave static with a temperature of about 3 degrees K.

In 1962, Monod, Jean-Pierre Changeux, and F. Jacob concluded that the inhibition of an enzyme by the end product of its pathway required a second active site on the molecule; they named the structural movement between these sites an 'allosteric transition' (Monod et al. 1963).
In 1962, Hans Ris noticed the similarity in appearance of the DNA in chloroplasts to that of cyanobacteria.
In 1962, Werner Arber predicted the existence of 'restriction endonuclease' enzymes, which are bacterial enzymes capable of cleaving viral DNA at points where specific nucleotide sequences occur .
Between 1962 and 1964, Edelman, Baruj Benacerraf, Joseph Gally, and colleagues confirmed that antibodies of different specificities had different primary structures, i.e., amino acid sequences.  They proposed, and Christian Anfinsen, Edgar Haber, and colleagues confirmed, that antibodies also had different three-dimensional structures, i.e., they fold differently (Edelman and Benacerraf 1962; Edelman and Gally 1962).  That antibodies could be denatured and then be allowed to reform in the absence of antigen was the final disproof of the template hypothesis (E. Haber 1964).  Extending these proposals, Smithies pointed out that "for the combination of H [for heavy] and L [for light] chains to hold implications for antibody diversity..., they would have to be able to combine randomly" (Podolsky and Tauber 1997:65; Smithies 1963).

In 1962, John B. Gurdon demonstrated totipotency, that is, that a fully differentiated cell still contains the genetic information to direct development of the cells in the entire animal.  He accomplished this by removing the nuclei from fertilized frogs' egg and replacing them with a cell from a single tadpole's intestine.  The frogs grown in this way had identical genetic constitutions, that is, they were clones.
In 1962, S. Cohen isolated epidermal growth factor.
In 1962, Michel Jouvet showed that REM sleep was controlled by the pontine brain stem.
In 1962, Rachel Louise Carson published Silent Spring, which concerned the dangers of pesticides.

In 1962, Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger identified the muon neutrino, "produced primarily as a result of the decay of the pion" (Danby et al. 1962:36). 
In 1962, Gold, in "The Arrow of Time," said that the Universe's expansion is the only real marker for the privileged direction of time (Gold 1962).  

In 1962, an Aerobee rocket, flown by a group led by Riccardo Giacconi, found the first source of X-rays, Scorpius X-1, outside the Solar System and, also, the more general X-ray background.  X-rays, like gamma rays and infrared radiation rarely penetrate the Earth's atmosphere.
In 1962, Paul Baran described 'packet switching,' the breaking down of data into labelled packets, and how this would be crucial for the realization of a computer network.
In 1962, Thomas S. Kuhn, in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, wrote that "discovery commences with the awareness of anomaly, i.e., with the recognition that nature has somehow violated the paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science" (Kuhn 1962:52-53).  Indeed, a new paradigm is formed because it is incommensurable in any of several possible ways to the old theory and retained because it is useful, not because it is real.
In 1963, Cyril Ponnamperuma, R. Mariner, and Carl Sagan irradiated a solution of adenine, ribose, and phosphoric acid with ultraviolet light at a strength comparable to the primitive terrestial atmosphere and produced the nucleoside adenosine in the laboratory (Sagan 1965:214). 
In 1963, Jerne invented the hemolytic plaque technique for screening large numbers of cells and capable of finding rare antibody producers.  It proved critical to the development of monoclonal antibodies ' (Monod et al. 1963).

In 1963, Stephanie Louise Kwolek synthesized polybenzamide, or PBA, a liquid crystalline polymer, used in lightweight body armor.
In 1963, Murray Gell-Mann and, independently, George Zweig, invented the notion of a more fundamental particle than neutrons and protons which Gell-Mann named the 'quark.'  The eightfold way scheme requires that quarks have charges of 1/3 and 2/3, not previously allowed in elementary particles.  Quarks, described mathematically as SU(3) triplet groups, were predicted to come in six ' flavors,' of which there are three 'colors,' or charges of each: 'up,' 'down,' and 'strange.'  For Gell-Mann, his model was purely "schematic" and quarks were "purely mathematical" (Gell-Mann 1964:169), "not little objects so much as they were patterns, symmetries underlying nature" (Johnson 1999:216).  For Zweig, on the other hand, they were always tiny particles, as indeed it turned out they are.  Most physicists believe that quarks and leptons represent the simplest level of structure.
In 1963, Roy Patrick Kerr described the anticipated properties of a rapidly rotating black-hole: it is elliptical; its surface area is less than that of a static black-hole of equivalent mass; if its rotation is sufficiently rapid, the area of the event horizon is reduced to zero; the area around the rotating hole rotates as well; and "a new, inner event horizon forms, and it becomes possible to travel through the black-hole, and emerge into a new universe or perhaps another part of our Universe" (Dictionary of Astronomy 1997:255).

In 1963, a rocket, flown by a group led by Herbert Friedman, showed X-rays coming from the general direction of the Crab Nebulae, which Friedman suggested might be coming from a neutron star left behind by a supernova.
In 1963, Edward Lorenz found what was probably the first example of a 'strange attractor,' a flow in phase space in which orbits converge to an object which is neither a fixed point nor a limit cycle.
In 1963 and 1964, Imre Lakatos, in Proofs and Refutations, suggested that mathematics develops by a process of conjecture, followed by attempts to prove it, that is, reduce it to other conjectures.
In 1964, Louis Leaky identified and named Homo habilis.
In 1964, Nirenberg and Phillip Leder found that lengths of artificial RNA as short as three bases were sufficient to make the ribosomes bind with the kind of transfer-RNA complementary to one codon (Nirenberg and Leder 1964).
In 1964, Har Gobind Khorana perfected the biochemistry needed to make long strands of RNA with known, simple repeating sequences.
In 1964, Charles Yanofsky established the co-linearity of the gene and the enzyme for making tryptophan in E. coli.
In 1964, William D. Hamilton contributed to the theory of evolution the notion of 'inclusive fitness,' i.e., that fitness--high fitness meaning high selectibility--should include the survival and reproduction of kin.  The formula by which this is ascertained states that a gene will increase in frequency in a population if b, the benefit to the recipient, divided by c, the cost to the actor, both measured as changes in the expected number of offspring resulting from the act, is equivalent to k where k is greater than 1 divided by r, the relatedness of the actor to the recipient, or "the coefficients of relationship appropriate to the neighbors whom he affects: unity for clonal individuals, one-half for sibs, one-quarter for half-sibs, one-eighth for cousins, [etc.] and finally whose relationship can be considered negligibly small" (Hamilton 1964:8).
In 1964,Bell, in "On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox," using the E-P-R assumption of 'local reality,' turned the E-P-R thought experiment into "an accurately formulated mathematical theorem" ('t Hooft 1997:175), which set "a strict limit on the possible level of correlation for simultaneous two-particle results....  Quantum mechanics à la Bohr predicts that, under some circumstances the degree of cooperation should exceed Bell's limit [and] thus opens the way for a direct test of the foundations of quantum mechanics, and the decisive discrimination between Einstein's idea of a locally real world, and Bohr's conception of a somewhat ghostly world full of subatomic conspiracy" (Davies and Brown 1986:17).  In other words, the measurements, on a statistical basis, will be unequal, if common sense prevails.  This is known as Bell's inequality.  If Bell's inequality is violated, this "reveals a fundamental truth about the Universe, that there are correlations which take place instantaneously, regardless of the separation between the objects involved" (Gribbin 2000:24).  "Bell's theorem was a great discovery because it showed that an important question that had previously been considered as a philosophical one could be decided by experiment" (Park 1990:343). 

In 1964, James Cronin and Val Fitch demonstrated that when one type of kaon, a neutral particle which is its own antiparticle, decays it leaves very slightly more positrons than electrons.  This process violates conservation of charge conjugation (C) and sometimes parity (P), but in combination with time (T), or CPT, symmetry is always maintained.

In 1964, Peter Higgs invented a way of evading Goldstone's theorem, known as the 'Higgs mechanism.'  "It solved the mass problem for particles of spin-1 at the cost of introducing a new kind of massive particle, the spin-0 'Higgs boson'" (Brown et al. 1997a:11). Higgs particles drag on the movement of quarks and electrons, producing inertia, the essence of mass.

In 1964, Nicholas Samios, using the Brookhaven accelerator, discovered the particle, omega-minus, whose existence Gell-Mann and Ne'eman had predicted on the basis of their periodic table. 

In 1964, Wheeler, while contemplating classical gravitation as it approaches the final state of recontraction, pointed out "a direct tie between classical and quantum concepts [by way of] the integral [or Hamiltonian] of the Lagrange function" (Wheeler 1964:330).  The question he asked was this: With the help of the quantum principle, can geometry be constructed out of more basic elements without dimensionality?  Later, Wheeler called this underlying element 'pregeometry.'  More primordial than either Riemann's geometry or Bohr's particles, pregeometry is identical to 'quantum fluctuation,' and, somehow, the quantum principle itself (Wheeler 1971:1203). 

By 1964, Merle F. Walker, Alfred H. Joy, and Robert P. Kraft had established that "membership in a binary system is a necessary condition for a star to become a nova....  One of the components is usually a blue white dwarf star and the other is a red star of about the same mass.  Apparently, as the large, cool red star evolves, it expands into a region where the gravity of the small hot white dwarf predominates.  As a result, some of the hydrogen-rich material of the red star flows onto the white dwarf star" (Lang and Gingerich 1979:421-422).

In 1964, Jesse L. Greenstein and Maarten Schmidt identified several known radio sources as 'quasi-stellar' objects, or quasars, and interpreted them to be distant and superluminous with large cosmological redshifts and small angular sizes.
By the mid-1960s, Ruth Sager reported numerous incidences of non-chromosomal mutation in a green algae, Chlamydomonas, all of which demonstrated the same pattern of maternal transmission.
In the mid-1960s, Sonneborn, still working with Paramecium, confirmed by grafting tests that the genetic basis for its morphology is contained in its cortex (Sonneborn 1970).

In 1965, Emile Zuckerkandl and Pauling said that molecular sequences can reveal evolutionary relationships to an extend that phenotypic criteria and molecular functions cannot (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1965). 
Beginning in 1965, Eric R. Kandel published reports on the synaptic facilitation of memory in Aplasia californica, a marine mollusk with a remarkably simple nervous system, and proved that biochemical change at the receptor level is the molecular basis of memory (Kandel and Tauc 1965).
In 1965, Norbert Hilschmann sequenced Bence-Jones proteins, which are light chains of myeloma globulins found in the urine of myeloma patients, and determined that they possessed different amino acid sequences in their 'variable' and 'common' regions.
Later in 1965, William Dreyer and J. Claude Bennett proposed that within each Bence-Jones cell the variable region existed as an episome which would pair with the single common gene at a specific base sequence.  Today, this is known as 'V-C translocation,' although at the time their theory was most noted for its hypothesis that the genetic material was in the germline (Dreyer and Bennett 1965).
In 1965, R. Bruce Merrifield and John Morrow Stewart invented solid-phase peptide synthesis in which one end of a growing peptide is attached to a tiny plastic bead and amino acids are added individually(Merrifield and Stewart 1965).

In 1965, Cambridge Instruments produced the first commercial scanning electron microscope. [added 02/01/03]

In 1965, Holley achieved the first sequencing of a nucleic acid, a transfer RNA molecule known as alanine (Holley 1968). [added 02/01/03]

In 1965, Nambu proposed an unbroken-symmetry color gauge theory for hadrons which "had to consist of each of the three colors, or a color and an anti-color, so that the net [charge] was always zero" (Johnson 1999:283; Nambu 1966:133-142). 
In 1965, Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, while testing some microwave-receiving equipment, discovered cosmic background radiation (CBR) which yielded "noise temperature [of] a value about 3.5 degrees K. higher than expected" and concluded it was coming in all directions with no obvious source and was not "due to radio sources of types known to exist" (Penzias and Wilson 1965:421).  Robert Henry Dicke, Phillip James Edwin Peebles, and colleagues explained the "excess radiation as the residual temperature of the primeval explosion that initiated the expansion of the Universe" (Lang and Gingerich 1979:873).  The implication is that intergalactic space is above absolute zero, or about 3 degrees K.  CBR together with the extant amount of helium is corroberated by extrapolation to the point in time when the Universe was a few seconds old and hot enough for nuclear reactions to occur.  This, in turn, led to a drastic shift of the consensus to favor acceptance of the big-bang cosmology.

In 1965, Hoyle and Jayant V. Narlikar revised the steady-state model by raising the coupling constant by an extremely large factor in order to account for background radiation and through the suggestion that, rather than the old homogenous model, the Universe was locally fluctuating and unstable (Hoyle and Narlikar 1966:168,170).
In 1965, Orhan Berktay, building on earlier work by sonar researchers, discovered that ultrasound signals are distorted in water in a mathematically predictable way.
In 1965, Roger Brown, in Social Psychology, wrote that categorization, or naming, for a child, begins at the level of distinctive action: you smell flowers and you pet cats and you throw balls.  Further categorization moves in either an abstract or a concrete direction: upward to superordinate categories (like plant and animal) and downward to subordinate categories (like jonquil and Siamese).

In 1965, Noam Chomsky, in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, said that grammars of particular languages "are supplemented by [an innate] universal grammar that accomodates the creative aspect of language use and expresses the deep-seated regularities which, being universal, are omitted from the [particular] grammar itself" (Chomsky 1965:6).  The universal aspects of "the linquistic intuition--the tacit competence--of the native speaker" he called 'generative grammar' (ibid.:27).
In 1966, David Phillips solved the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme, lysozyme (Blake et al. 1967).
In 1966, Walter Gilbert confirmed the existence of repressor molecules, establishing that the gene responsible for making betagalactosidase was repressed by something which would only detach from the gene when lactose was present (Gilbert and Müller-Hill 1966). Shortly thereafter, Mark Ptashne also isolated a repressor and confirmed it was DNA (Ptashne 1967).
In 1966, Terje Lømo observed that a brief high-frequency train of stimuli to the hippocampus produces an increase in the excitory synaptic potential in the post-synaptic neurons which can be long lasting.  This is known as 'long-term potentiation (LTP).'
From 1966 until the 1980s, Kwang W. Jeon observed amoeba being infected by bacteria and then the few survivors losing their disease but not the bacterial 'germs' which had become indispensible, i.e., symbiotic, to the lives of the amoebae.
In 1966, Jacques Oudin chose the term 'ideotype' to denote the class of antigenic determinants peculiar to a particular antibody from a specific individual.  This may contrasted with 'allotypes,' a term coined earlier by Oudin, which are protein products of different alleles of the same gene.
In 1966, Brenner and Cesar Milstein devised a hypermutation model of antibody diversity in which they postulated an error-prone polymerase (Brenner and Milstein 1966).
By 1966, through the use of Nirenberg's and Khorana's techniques, all twenty amino acids were decoded, including a number of 'degenerate' variations.  "Degeneracy is different from strict redundancy but can include redundancy as a specific case....  Degenerate groups are isofunctional but nonisomorphic" (Edelman 1978:59). "Three codons, the triplets UAA, UAG, and UGA, had no amino acids assigned to them. One by one, in experiments in phage genetics by Brenner and independently by Alan Garen..., and last by Brenner and Crick in 1967, these three triplets were proved to be nonsense codons, whose function was to signal the end of the polypeptide chain" (Judson 1979:488; Stretton et al. 1966; Crick and Brenner 1967). Also in 1966, Crick, in The Croonian Lecture, proposed a compact table of the standard bases of RNA, uracil (U), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and guanine (G), in which the code is still always displayed (Crick 1966). In DNA, thymine replaces uracil. [revised 02/01/03]
In 1966, Lewontin and J. L. Hubby, surveying gene-controlled protein variants, demonstrated that between eight and fifteen percent of the loci in the Drosophila pseudoobscura genome are heterozygous (Lewontin and Hubby 1966).

In 1966, Benzer, working with Drosophila mutants, intiated the study of the relations between genes and behavior (Benzer 1967). [added 02/01/03]
In 1966, George C. Williams, in Adaption and Natural Selection, supported genic selection, defining a gene "as any hereditary information for which there is a favorable or unfavorable selection bias equal to several or many times its rate of endogenous change" (Williams 1966:25).
In 1966, Zel'dovich and Novikov proposed that neutron stars and black-holes would be found in close binary systems.

In 1966, S. S. Gershtein and Zel'dovich noted that "relict neutrinos could make an appreciable contribution to the present cosmic mean mass density" (Peebles 1993:422), making neutrinos a candidate for dark matter. 

In 1966, Robert V. Wagoner, Fowler, and Hoyle established that "significant quantities of only [deutrium, helium3, helium4, and lithium7] can be produced in the universal fireball" or in large masses of gas that collapse to a similarly hot, dense state; also, the synthesis of elements at very high temperatures and very short time scales, i.e., 'bounces,' "bridge the mass gaps through 3  He4 ® C12 and mainly produce metals of the iron group, plus a small amount of heavier elements" (Wagoner et al. 1967:3).
In 1967, Lynn Margulis established that the main internal structures of eukaryotic cells originated as independent living creatures.  Known as 'endosymbionts,' these organisms were "originally taken up in the course of feeding by an unusually large host cell that had already acquired many properties now associated with eukaryotic cells" (de Duvé 1996: ).  
In 1967, Edwin S. Lennox and M. Cohn revised the Brenner-Milstein model, characterized it as a 'somatic' model, as opposed to a 'germline' model, and named the nucleotide, where the error-prone polymerase operated, the 'generator of diversity,' or GOD (Lennox and Cohn 1967).
In 1967, Kornberg, Mehran Goulian, and Robert L. Sinsheimer synthesized a biologically active viral DNA, using as a template a single-stranded DNA chain from fX174 which requires no protein coat to infect bacteria (Kornberg et al. 1967).
In 1967, Reiji Okazaki showed that newly synthesized DNA requires a DNA fragment as a starter.  These fragments are replicated discontinuously and then spiced together.
In 1967, Judah Folkman began the development of his theory that cancerous tumors could be stopped by inhibiting the first growth of blood vessels to them.  Earlier, he had developed the first implantable drug-delivery system, later called Norplant.
In 1967, Gurdon, by transplanting somatic material into frog's eggs, discovered that the synthesis of RNA and DNA changes to the kind of synthesis characteristic of the host cell nucleus (Gurdon 1968).
In 1967, Aaron Klug concluded that viruses had a geodesic and crystalline structure.
In 1967, Donald Mosier established experimentally that, in order to generate an immune system antibody response, lymphocytes must interact with non-lymphoidal cells, such as macrophage (Mosier 1967).
[In 1967, Jerne, facetiously imposing molecular terminology on immunologists, labelled those favoring the cellular point of view, such as Metchnikoff, Burnet, and M. Cohn, 'cis-immunologists' and those favoring the molecular point of view, such as Edelman and Porter, 'trans-immunologists.'  These attitudes fell roughly from the traditional disagreement between the 'globalists,' or holists, and the reductionists.  At the time and in the sense which Jerne intended the distinction, it referred to where the respective disciplines were coming from: "The trans-immunologists...start at the end, with the structure of antibody molecules, hoping to work their way backwards, and the cis-immunologists...start at the beginning, and with the effects of antigenic exposure, hoping to work their way forwards" (Jerne 1967:591).
In 1967, Steven Weinberg and, independently the following year, Abdus Salam completed the somewhat earlier observation of Glashow that the weak and electromagnetic forces share a number of common features: If the main difference between them is mass versus massless, "the spontaneous breaking of the underlying gauge symmetry" by a minute violation of parity in a weak neutral interaction permits the mass of the weak force to be treated as "a secondary phenomena, leaving the gauge symmetry of the dynamics itself intact" (Davies and Brown 1988:54-55).  A violation of parity may be illustrated by two asymmetric options after a phase transition, e.g., one among the iron filings around a cooling magnet "will arbitrarily pick one of the possible directions [as the negative pole and] the effect propagates" (Johnson 1999:278).  Applying this idea to cosmogeny, the primordial symmetry of the fourfold superforce broke down as the Universe cooled (Ibid.:355); "pure spirit gives way to material being," like the myth of falling from grace (Ibid.:278).  Glashow's algebra unified these forces by combining two mathematical groups--what Cartan called SU(2) x U(1)--into a theory of 'electroweak force,' reminiscent of Maxwell's demonstration that electricity and magnetism were part of a more embracing scheme. The theory predicts the existence of the carriers of the weak force, the 'Z,' 'W+,' and 'W -,' all confirmed in 1983/1984, and a heavy particle with spin 0, the Higgs boson.  This process, also known as the Weinberg-Salam phase transition, probably occurred about 10-10 of the first second.

In 1967, Sakharov set forth three principles that "must apply to any process which could produce matter particles preferentially in the early Universe....  First, there must be processes which produce baryons out of non-baryons.  ['Baryons' are made up of three quarks with a quantum number +1.]  Second, these baryon interactions...must violate both C and CP conservation....  And, third, the Universe must evolve from a state of thermal equilibrium into a state of disequilibrium--there must be a definite flow of time, so that CP processes together can be non-conserved, even though CPT remains conserved" (Gribbin 1998a:251).

In 1967, Sakharov proposed that "the metrical elasticity of space [is] a sort of displacement effect" (Sakharov 1968:1040), or, in other words, he proposed a microscopic foundation for gravitation based on the energy of an elastic deformation (curvature) created by quantum fluctuations of the vacuum. 

In 1967, Bryce Seligman DeWitt took the canonical Hamiltonian approach to quantizing gravity, providing a cosmological formalism, HY = 0, with the wave function obeying a functional differential equation, known as the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which is an analogue of the Schrödinger equation.  Imagine the four-dimensional space-time sliced up into three-surfaces and concentrate on the variables defined thereon: The Hamiltonian wave function "evolves into a superposition of vectors representing the possible values of some system variable together with apparatus 'readings' " (DeWitt 1967:1140).  Since, due to the uncertainty relations, no spacetimes exist at the quantum gravity level, the equation is timeless, or, alternatively, "different possible configurations [in Everett's sense] are the instants of time" (Barbour 2000:247). 

In 1967, Franco Pacini pointed out the the gravitational energy released when a star collapses would be converted to rotational energy.  "A normal star like the Sun [would] speed up from a rotation period of 27 days to a rotation period of much less than a second when it becomes a neutron star" (Lang and Gingerich 1979:494).  He further pointed out that a "very strong magnetic field" would be created and that "by this means a large amount of energy and momentum could be pumped from the neutron star into the supernova remnant," such as in the Crab Nebulae (Pacini 1967:567).
In 1967, Anthony Hewish brought into use a dipole radio telescope designed to investigate 'scintillting' radio sources, that is, quasars, and S. Jocelyn Bell determined that the highly regular pulses of a radio source from outer space originate in neutron stars.  These were named 'pulsars,' even though it was soon obvious they were not pulsing, but rotating and emitting radio waves in the manner that a lighthouse emits light.
In 1967, Arthur Samuels finished building a computerized checkers player which could model the opponent's options, recognize its tactics, and make predictions on that basis.

In 1967, Walter J. Ong, in The Presence of the Word, wrote that the academic tradition in the West is "a massive device for institutionalizing the polemic stances originally fostered in oral culture because of its problems of information storage and its consequent overspecialization in heroic figures and interpersonal struggle as a means of interpreting actuality" (Ong 1967:236).
In 1968, Norman Geschwind and Walter Levitsky showed that in male and female humans there are characteristic anatomical differences, e.g., the size of the planum temporale in the hemispheres of the brain (Geschwind and Levitsky 1968).
In 1968, Donald Roy Forsdyke proposed that, within the immune system, "two separable and distinquishable signals [were] required to separate inactivation by self from activation by nonself" (Cohn 1994:30; Forsdyke 1968).
In 1968, Lionel F. Jaffe, working with Fucus eggs, described the role of ionic current in developmental patterning (L. F. Jaffe 1969; L. A. Jaffe and Cross 1986).
In 1968, Motoo Kimura formulated the neutral theory of evolution which holds that almost all evolution at the molecular level is due to random drift, in contrast to neo-Darwinians who hold that natural selection plays the more prominent role.  Subsequently, the discovery of various 'silent' genes, invisible to natural selection, have lent support to the concept of evolution by neutral genes.  Neutral theory offers a baseline for evaluating the significance of selection and adaptive change.
In 1968, Arber discovered the restriction endonuclease in Escherichia coli B. At the same time, Meselson and Robert Yuan discovered it in Escherichia coli K. These endonuclease recognize specific sequences but cut the DNA at random places and were known as Type I (Arber 1968). [added 02/01/03]

In 1968, Sanger and colleaques, applying another new sequencing technique in which a DNA molecule is stopped at various stages of replication, reported a twelve nucleotide sequence from bacteriophage gamma. [added 02/01/03]

In 1968, Elias James Corey and colleagues synthesized five different prostaglandins using a methodology, retrosynthetic analysis, Corey had developed wherein the planning process began with the desired molecule, instead of the initial chemicals, and created maps of many possible compounds and reactions. This system made it possible to use computers for chemical synthesis. [added 02/01/03]
In 1968, Jurgen Habermas pointed out that "psychoanalysis consists of the hermeneutic interpretation of the complex text that is provided to the analyst by his subject," not the physics of the mind, as Freud supposed (Stent 1985:217).

In 1968, Gold predicted that a rotating neutron star ought to gradually slow down, which was soon confirmed by the pulse rate at the Crab Nebulae.

In 1968, Eric E. Becklin and Gerry Neugebauer showed that the Milky Way's galactic nucleus is observable at 22,000 Å.
In 1968, ARPA , under Lawrence G. Roberts, contracted with Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, or BBN, to build ARPANET, the prototype of the computer internet.

In 1969, Kilmer McCully discovered a correlation between heart disease and high homocysteine levels, probably occasioned by deficiencies in vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid.
In 1969, Calvin published Chemical Evolution in which he gave several autocatalytic scenarios for the origin of life.
In 1969, de Duvé identified the role of 'peroxisomes,' a subcellular microorganism, to be oxygen detoxifiers.  They accomplish this by converting oxygen to hydrogen peroxide which in turn destroys an enzyme called 'catalase.'  They also contain an enzyme which removes superoxide ions (de Duvé 1996:56).  
In 1969, Glashow, John Iliopoulos, and Luciano Maiani introduced a fourth quark, named 'charm.'
In 1969, Marcian Ted Hoff designed the first microprocessor, an integrated circuit semiconductor chip which was able to receive instructions and send data.
In 1969, Penrose discovered a process for extracting energy from a rotating, or Kerr-type, black-hole: If, when sending a pair of 'virtual particles' against the direction of the spin and into the area immediately outside a black-hole, the ergosphere, the pair were to split, one part entering the black-hole and the other escaping and becoming 'real,' the latter fragment may have greater energy than its entirety had to begin with.  This extra energy is surrendered by the black-hole which must slow its rotation slightly.  This is known as the Penrose process (Penrose 1969:252; Penrose and Floyd 1971:177-178).

In 1969, L. E. Snyder, D. Buhl, B. Zuckerman, and P. Palmer identified the organic molecule formaldehyde in interstellar space by its characteristic spectroscopic signature at radio wavelengths.  Polyatomic molecules are formed  perhaps when "large particles of carbon capture other atoms in interstellar dust and form more complex organic molecules" (Oparin 1972:324-325; Snyder et al. 1969:679-681). 

In ! 1969, Brent Berliner and Paul Kay published Basic Color Terms:Their Universality and Evolution, in which they concluded that "there appears to be a fixed sequence of evolutionary stages through which a language must pass as its basic color vocabulary increases" (Berliner and Kay 1969:14); i.e., first, black and white encompass the entire spectrum, then red is added, then green or yellow, then blue, then brown, then many categories.
In the late 1960s, Ralph Lewin discovered a microbe which he named Prochloron, a missing link in the history of symbiosis, combining the physiology of a plant with the structure of a bacterium.

In 1970, K. A. Kvenvolden reported that the amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite are incontestably extraterrestial because they are 'racemic,' i.e., their handedness occurs in equal amounts whereas all naturally-occurring amino acids on Earth are left-handed (Kvenvolden et al. 1970).  Others showed that there is a slight preference for left-handedness in extraterrestial amino acids (Engel and Nagy 1982).  This discrepancy would be explained if the amino acid molecules had been circularly polarized, a theoretical possibility (Darling 2001:36). 

In 1970, Lewontin took the position that the synthetic theory of evolution ought to be expanded to include multiple units of selection, e.g., cell organelles, haploid organisms, and gametes, as well as individual organisms. This is widely known as the anti-adaptionist position and is less reductive than the adaptionist position in which genes are the sole unit of selection. The latter position was explicit in the ideas of Williams and W. D. Hamilton. The issue seems to be the assumption which adaptionists make that selection strives for optimality which their opponents, i.e., Stephen Jay Gould and Lewontin, ridicule as 'Panglossian' (Gould & Lewontin 1978). [added 02/01/03]
In 1970, Mort Mandel demonstrated that placing E. coli cells in a cold calcium chloride solution rendered them permeable to nucleic acid fragments.  This manuver is virtually indispensible in genetic engineering operations.
In 1970, Peter A. Bretscher and M. Cohn published a two-signal theory of self-nonself discrimination.  Signal one occurs when a lymphocyte's antigen-specific receptor, that is, either B-cell antibody or T-cell receptor, contacts the appropriate antigen.  If the lymphocyte receives no other signal, it is inactivated irreversibly, i.e., killed.  This is the tolerance pathway.  The second or activation signal was at that time thought to have been supplied only by helper T-cells, which are antigen-specific, thus maintaining tolerance.  Their theory was based on its analogy to neural associative learning, i.e., plasma cells learned to respond to or tolerate a signalling antigen by virtue of its associated signal from a carrier-antibody cell (Bretscher and Cohn 1970).

In 1970, Hamilton Othanel Smith and colleagues, working with the bacterium Hemophilus influenzae, discovered Type II restriction endonuclease which cuts between specific DNA sequences when paired with a matched set of methylase enzymes (H. O. Smith 1970). [added 02/01/03]

In 1970, Woodward and Roald Hoffman, in The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry, designed a set of rules for postulating the areas around atoms where it is most probable that electrons will be found. These reaction outcomes are based on stereochemistry and quantum mechanics. [added 02/01/03]

In 1970, Howard Temin and Satoshi Mizutani, taking up Lwoff's 1950 speculation and working with Rous sarcoma virus which has RNA as its genetic material, proved that the RNA had a DNA intermediate; that is, the virus has an enzyme by which the RNA directs the behavior of the DNA (Temin and Mizutani 1970). The same month David Baltimore, working with the virus that gives mice leukemia, made the same claim (Baltimore 1970). The enzyme is now known as 'reverse transcriptase.' By this process biologists can make DNA copies of active genes, or messenger RNA. [revised] *eIn 1970, Changeux isolated a receptor for the first time in a lab. The receptor was for acetylcholine and was from an eel (Changeux et al. 1970). [added 02/01/03]

In 2001, Richard Ellis, Michael R. Santos, Jean-Paul Kneib, and Konrad Kuijken discovered a star cluster 13.4 billion light years from Earth, employing a combination of the W. W. Keck Telescope and the HST with a gravitational lens, two billion light years away, the star cluster Abell 2218.  The significance of their discovery lies in its age, an age when the Universe was several hundred times denser than today. [added 02/01/03]
In 1970, Susumu Ohno published Evolution by Gene Duplication in which he described gene duplication as an escape from the pressure of natural selection.  "By duplication, a redundant copy of a locus is created.  Natural selection often ignores such a redundant copy, and, while being ignored, it accumulates...mutations and is born a new gene locus with a hitherto non-existent function.  Thus, gene duplication emerges as a major force of evolution.  [Also], when the metabolic requirement of an organism dictates the presence of an enormous amount of a particular gene product, the incorporation of multiple copies of a gene locus by the genome often fulfills that requirement" (Ohno 1970:59-60).
In 1970, John Schwarz and André Neveu discovered a second string theory that described fermions. The following year, together with Pierre Ramond, they revised this model, reducing the dimensions to ten.  This model came to be called the Superstring Theory of Everything, or a 'Grand Unified Theory' (GUT).  " ((It should not be supposed that a universal theory would result in an explanation of all natural phenomena: "All we would know is a rather formal--though exact--series of equations which all phenomena would obey" ('t Hooft 1997:179)).  In the case of a Superstring, the different harmonics correspond [not to different sounds, but] to different elementary particles" (Whitten 1988:93). String theory includes gravitons, which carry the force of gravity, and 'supersymmetry.'  Supersymmetry would occur if every boson had a corresponding fermion --two sides of the same coin united at a higher symmetry-- and infinities might not require renormalization since bosons and fermions could cancel each other.  However, direct tests of GUT predictions can only be done at energies way beyond the reach of present accelerators. The notion of supersymmetry led to the prediction of the existence of ' weakly interacting massive particles,' or WIMPs, and their discussion as a conceivable constituent of dark matter (Gribbin 1998a:270-272). 

In 1970, H. Dieter Zeh showed that quantum mechanics gives rise to 'superselection rules' which state, for example, that "superpositions of states with different charge cannot occur...for similar reasons as those valid for superpositions of macroscopically different states: They cannot be dynamically stable because of the significantly different interaction of their components with their environment" (Zeh 1970:348).  This effect became known as 'decoherence' because an ideal, or pristine, superposition is said to be coherent. 

In 1970, Brandon Carter suggested that in principle conventional physics could have predicted the existence of 'large number coincidences,' e.g., a star's mass is in order of magnitude the inverse of the gravitational coupling constant, provided use was made of the 'anthropic principle:' "What we can expect to observe must be restricted by the conditions necessary for our presence as observers" (Carter 1973:291).  This is the weak version.  The strong version, which Carter finds distasteful, holds that the Universe must be such that life can evolve in it. 

In 1970, Stephen Hawking and Penrose proved that the Universe must have had a beginning in time, on the basis of Einstein's theory of General Relativity.  The implication of this is that near the beginning of time, when the Universe was sufficiently small, the laws of quantum mechanics would have applied.  Earlier, Penrose had shown that black-holes produce singularities, mathematical points where certain physical quantities attain infinite values.  Hawking now showed mathematically that the big-bang must have arisen from a singularity.

[Cosmologists' interest in the age of the Universe and in the value of the Hubble constant relates to the Universe's probable fate by way of the density of matter in it.  This density is denoted in cosmology by W, the Greek capital letter omega. "This parameter is defined in such a way that if the cosmological omega is less than one, the Universe is open and will expand forever, while if it is [one or] bigger than one the Universe is closed and must inevitably end in the Big Crunch (sometimes called the 'omega point')....  If...omega has the critical value of one, then the age of the Universe...is exactly two-thirds of 1/H" (Gribbin 1998a:188).  The value of H, the Hubble constant, is controversial.  "Deviations from the simple Hubble's law are calculated in terms of a deceleration parameter, often labelled q, which is defined in such a way that q = 1/2 corresponds to W = 1" (Ibid.:201).  The inverse of the Hubble constant, called Hubble time, gives an approximate age for the Universe; e.g., if omega equals one, the age is thought to be 6.5 billion years to 13 billion years.]

In 1970, Sandage asserted that there is a maximum brightness limit for "first-ranked [galaxy] cluster members, [permitting] a universal  K correction," and thus reducing the plotting error in the deceleration (q0) equation to 15% (Sandage 1970:39).

In 1970, the first X-ray astronomical satellite, built by NASA, was launched and over the next three years discovered many X-ray sources.

In 1970, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), belonging to the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, began operating an 'aperture synthesis telescope.'  These are "interferometers in which the whole or part of a large, imaginary aperture is built [making] use of the fact that over a period of 12 hours the Earth's rotation will move the elements to sweep out half a ring of the synthesized aperture; the other half of the ring can be derived from the observations of the first half....  In practice, some aperture-synthesis telescopes employ several movable dishes to reduce observation time....  Aperture synthesis requires complex data-reduction techniques and powerful computers" (Dictionary of Astronomy 1997:21).
In 1970, John Conway developed the Game of Life, a computer program which began with randomly arranged white, or alive, squares and black, or dead, squares.  These squares live or die according to a few simple rules centered on the density of the population, and, in the meantime, arrange themselves into all manner of coherent structures.

In the early 1970s, Sandage, as it had become "evident that galaxy classification studies offered vast insights into questions of galaxy formation,...began a program...to complete the classification of all galaxies in the Shapley-Ames Catalogue" (Sandage and Bedke 1994:6).

In 1971, Manfred Eigen, in "Selforganization of Matter and the Evolution of Biological Macromolecules," described certain "random effects are able to feed back to their origin and thus become themselves the cause of some amplified action" (Eigen 1971:467), and this he called a hypercycle. A hypercycle is a "reaction cycle with superimposed coupling" (Eigen 1992:108). This means that, if one of the replicators or one of the translation products is encoded as the replication enzyme, the rate of the reaction of catalysis will rise with the square of the RNA concentration, that is, hyperbolically. The feedback loop that connects the replication enzyme to its RNA template will only come into effect if the genotype and the phenotype are encapsulated together so that the phenotype cannot act on the genotypes of other, competing replicators (Eigen 1992:108). "The hypercycle...unites several genes that are working just below their error limit, and thus bypasses the error threshold, allowing the quantity of information to rise to the much higher levels needed for the nucleation of apparatus of translation" (Eigen 1992:111). [added 02/01/03]
In the 1970s, Manfred Eigen sought the origin of life in ribonucleic acid, the apparatus of replication.  He was able to make RNA using an enzyme but no template.  Leslie Orgel made RNA using a template but only zinc ions for a catalyst.
In 1971, Ronald J. Konopka, working in Benzer's lab, published his discovery in Drosophila of the first gene known to control a biological clock.  On the X chromosome there are three alleles of a locus, which he named the period locus, that shape a fly's sense of time (Konopka and Benzer 1971).

In 1971, Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein hypothesized that abnormalities in the regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarl coenzyme A reductase are the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic disease in which excess cholesterol accumulates in blood and tissues.
In 1971, Susan Leeman determined the eleven amino acid structure of the peptide, Substance P.
In 1971, Robert Trivers extended the notion of reciprocity to the explanation of altruism.
In 1971, Kenneth G. Wilson demonstrated the ubiquity, or 'universality,' of critical point phenomena, such as phase transitions, by using renormalization groups.  In the phase transition from liquid to vapor, for example, configurations are formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near the critical point, that is, the point where the difference in the densities of the two phases vanishes and at which it is susceptible to renormalization group transformation.
In 1971, Gerhard 't Hooft proved that theories like the Yang-Mills theory could be described in the language of quantum mechanics, i.e., renormalized, and that theories with massive particles, like those postulated by Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam, were sensible so long as the masses come from spontaneous symmetry breaking. With Martinus J. G. Veltman, 't Hooft developed a dimensional-regularization method, involving temporarily modifying the number of space dimensions in a calculation.

In 1971, the Mariner 9 spacecraft began to map Mars, and quickly established that there were no channels and that the seasonal variations were caused by the alternate deposition and displacement of windblown dust.

In 1971, Alan Kay and Jeff Rulifson, in the course of designing an iconic programming language and wondering about ways to keep the screen from getting too crowded, discovered "a way to let documents appear in separate but overlapping ' windows' (Waldrop 2001:362). 

In 1972, Gould and Niles Eldredge published their conclusion that the stratigraphic record of fossil remains is indeed accurate and evolution proceeds over time by 'punctuated equilibria,' or stasis punctuated by episodic events, rather than by phyletic gradualism. "Most morphological divergence of a descendant species occurs very early in its differentiation, when the population is small and still adjusting to local conditions" (Eldredge and Gould 1971:95). [added 02/01/03]
In 1972, Paul Berg, D. A. Jackson, and R. H. Symons spliced the DNA of two different types of virus together in vitro (D. Jackson et al. 1972).
In 1972, computerized axial tomography, or CAT scanning, was introduced.
In 1972, René Thom , in Stabilité Structurelle et Morphogénèse: Essai d'une théorie général des modèles, pointed out that structures, e.g., cells, have boundaries and a boundary implies a discontinuity.  Moreover, "all creation or destruction of forms, or morphogenesis, can be described by the disappearance of the attractors representing the initial forms, and their replacement by capture by the attractors representing the final forms.  This process [is] called 'catastrophe'" (Thom 1972:320).  His description is similar to Thompson's, but much more sophisticated mathematically.

In 1972, Sidney Coleman and Erick Weinberg arqued that elementary scalars might be constrained to have 'zero bare mass' which would lead to symmetry breakdowns through radiative corrections.  "When symmetry breakdown occurs in a fully massless field theory, so does dimensional transmutation; one dimensionless coupling constant disappears, to be replaced by a mass parameter."  This led them to speculate that in the case when a gauge group has two coupling constants, "one would survive, and the fine structure constant would still be a free parameter [and] all mass ratios could be computed in terms of it" (Coleman and Weinberg 1973:1904-1905).

In 1972, Andrei Linde and David A. Kirzhnits proposed the idea that the early Universe was a series of phase transitions.

In 1972, Louise Webster, Paul Murdin, and, independently, David Dunlap, having found that the star HDE 226868 is a member of a binary system, deduced that its X-radiating companion exceeds the Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, making it a black-hole.

In 1972, Jacob D. Bekenstein proposed "a unification of black-hole physics with thermodynamics," i.e., he maintained that the event horizon around a black-hole provides a direct measure of its entropy, i.e., is a black-hole's entropy, and that a quantum violation of Hawking's theorem--that the area of a black-hole can never decrease--is possible (Bekenstein 1973b:2333-2334; Bekenstein 1973a:950).
In 1972, Ray Tomlinson created the first electronic mail program.
In 1973, through the collaborative efforts of Janet Mertz, Ronald Davis, Peter Lobban, Berg, Herbert Boyer, Stanley N. Cohen, and John Morrow, animal genes were spliced into the plasmids, or small rings of DNA, of bacterial cells at places which readily rejoined even foreign DNA; thus was recombinant cloning begun, which, for once, answered more questions than it raised. For example, it permitted the identification of those genomic components which have no effect on development. It also permitted the launching of the biotechnology industry (Mertz and Davis 1972; Lobban and Kaiser 1973; S. N. Cohen et al. 1973). [revised 02/01/03]
In 1973, Jerne propounded a cognitive theory of immune ideotypic networks, envisaged as an autonomous, homeostatic system, with self-knowledge preceding the first antigenic encounter.  In the course of this, he proposed the study of the brain from the point of view of epigenetic selection.(Jerne 1973) Changeux took up his suggestion that same year (Changeux et al. 1973).
In 1973, Solomon H. Snyder and Candace B. Pert identified specific opiate receptors in the brain (Pert and Snyder 1973).
In 1973, Timothy V. P. Bliss and Lømo demonstrated that a brief high-frequency train of stimuli to the hippocampus produces an increase in the excitory synaptic potential in the post-synaptic hippocampal neurons, which slowly dissipated back to the base rate.  They called this long-lasting potentiation (Bliss and Lømo 1973).
In 1973, Ralph M. Steinmann and Z. A. Cohn observed dendritic cells in the spleen and lymphoid organs of mice (Steinman and Cohn 1973).

In 1973, David Gross, Frank Wilczek, and, independently, David Politzer proved mathematically that the Yang-Mills field theory was 'asymptotically free' (Gross and Wilczek 1973; Politzer 1973).  Asymptotical free theories have negative coupling constants; i.e., quarks when they are close to each other are unaware of each other, but when they move apart their interactive force gets progressively stronger, as if confined by an elastic band which is floppy when not taut (Gribbin 1998b:25).  Their proof of asymptotic freedom meant that a QED field theory for the strong force could be built. 

In 1973, Edward Tryon, in "The Self-Reproducing Inflationary Universe," proposed a simple, specific big-bang model in which "our Universe is a fluctuation of the vacuum, where 'vacuum fluctuation' is to be understood in the sense of quantum field theory" (Tryon 1973:396), that is, where the uncertainty relation requires a vacuum to be imperfect and permits the spontaneous, temporary emergence of particles.  A Universe which appears from nowhere must have a zero net value for conserved quantities.  This is accomplished in this model by balancing matter and anti-matter and by assuming that the Universe is closed and will ultimately return to singularity.  At that point 'gravitational potential energy' is reduced to zero and E=-mc2.

In 1973, Zel'dovich and Alex Starobinsky discovered that "rotating black-holes could create particles out of energy and eject them into space" (Gribbin 1995:149) by quantum fluctuations.

In 1973, John Maynard Smith and G. R. Price, along with W. D. Hamilton and Richard Dawkins, developed von Neumann's game theory where they substituted population dynamics and stability for rationality and fitness for self-interest. In both cases, they were concerned with optimization models, the proper role for which "is to provide the means for recreating short-term evolution in the imagination" (Oster and Wilson 1978:312). Since optimization is based on the assumption that populations strive to be adapted to the contemporary environment, maladaptive traits and the fact of continuous evolutionary change are obstacles to testing optimization theories (Maynard Smith and Price 1973). [added 02/01/03]
In 1973, Vinton Cerf and Robert E. Kahn began development of a protocol, later called TCP/IP, which allows diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other.
In 1974, Brenner described methods for inducing, isolating, and mapping mutations in a nematode, or worm, Caenorhabditis elegans (Brenner 1974).
In 1974, Peter Milner proposed the necessity of correlated, or simultaneous, firing by neural assemblies.  He also argued that early cortical areas would have to be involved in visual awareness and suggested the mechanism for this would be backprojection from the higher cortical areas.
In 1974, Rolf M. Zinkernagel and Peter C. Doherty proved that immunization results when antigen-specific T-cells and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are the same haplotype, or haploid genotype, which is the configuration of alleles of the MHC on one chromosome of a specific individual.  They also established that MHC-restriction occurs during the generation phase as well as during the effector phase (Zinkernagel and Doherty 1974).
In 1974, R. W. Hedges and A. E. Jacob discovered in E. coli a mobile DNA sequence, which they named a 'transposon.'
In 1974, William G. Quinn, working in Benzer's lab, established that flies can learn, i.e., they can remember, some for twenty-four hours, which is the equivalent of six years of a human life (Quinn et al. 1974).

In 1974, Berg led ten colleagues in writing a letter to Science explaining their concern "that some of these artificial recombinant DNA molecules could prove biologically hazardous.... Thus, new DNA elements introduced into E. coli might possibly become widely disseminated...with unpredictable effects" (Berg et al. 1974:303). The letter led to a meeting the following year of a hundred scientists from sixteen countries, and the year after that to new U. S. government regulations. [added 02/01/03]

In 1974, Henry Jay Heimlich, in Emergency Medicine, described a subdiaphramatic thrust, pushing up suddenly on the soft tissue of the diaphragm, which sharply reduced death from choking. This maneuver is based on the reserve volume of air that stays in the lungs after exhalation. [added 02/01/03]

In 1974, Samuel Ting and, independently, Burton Richter discovered a massive meson, predicted by the developing quark model and named therein as a charmed quark/anticharmed quark.  Ting called it a 'J particle' and Richter a 'psi particle,' and, for awhile, it was known as the J/psi particle. 
In 1974, Hawking assimilating the work of Bekenstein, Zel'dovich, and Starobinsky, postulated the existence of small black-holes and calculated that every black-hole radiates a constant flow of particles of which the intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the black-hole's mass.  This "radiation, though tiny, is just enough to bring about consistency with Bekenstein's entropy postulate" (Wheeler 1998:315).  When this "'Hawking radiation' exceeds the amount of matter and energy entering the black-hole, [the hole] will start to evaporate" (Dictionary of Astronomy 1997:208).  In fact, the more it loses mass, the more its surface gravity increases, the more the rate of emission increases.  "Near the end of its life the rate of emission would be very high and about 1030 erg would be released in the last 0.1 s..., [creating an explosion] equivalent to about 1 million 1 Mton hydrogen bombs" (Hawking 1974:30-31).  These theoretical 'miniholes' are especially interesting to physicists because they may yield fundamental insights into how gravity links to the other forces of nature" (Begelman and Rees 1996:223).  Indeed, "only a complete theory of quantum gravity will be able to predict and describe exactly what will happen to the black hole at [the final] moment ('t Hooft 1997:170).  
In 1974, Joseph H. Taylor and Russel A. Hulse, using a radiotelescope, discerned that a pulsar was emitting radio waves in a regular pattern of alternately speeding up and slowing down.  They realized that this pulsar must be part of a binary system and that the alternation must be caused by gravitational waves, predicted to exist by Einstein's general theory of relativity.

In 1974, Dagfinn Føllesdal formulated the conception that "meaning...is the joint product of all the evidence that is available to people who in their daily life try to communicate" (Føllesdal 1975:43).

In 1975, E. M. Southern devised an extension of gel electrophoresis, known as 'Southern blotting,' which greatly aided cloning by enabling the identification and sizing of DNA fragments (Southern 1975; Podolsky and Tauber 1997:409n7). [added 02/01/03]
In 1975, Sanger and colleages devised the 'plus and minus' method for determining the sequences of bases on a strand of DNA.  Until then, genetic map-makers had relied on the relative position of changes, i.e., mutations, in the genes (Sanger et al. 1977) .
In 1975, Milstein and Georg J. F. Köhler devised a method to fuse myeloma cells with normal B-cells, in bulk, that would grow just the hybrids which produce monoclonal antibodies. The basic process involves injecting an antigen into a mouse, thereby inducing the mouse's B-lymphocytes to produce antibodies to that antigen.  Unfortunately, these murine antibodies can produce a HAMA, or human anti-mouse antibodies, response (Köhler and Milstein 1975). 
In 1975, Kevin Lafferty and A. J. Cunningham proposed a model of immune system activation in which the second signal, or 'co-stimulation,' comes from an antigen-presenting cell (APC) which need not display specificity for antigen (Lafferty and Cunningham 1975).
In 1975, Viktor Hamburger confirmed that the neuronal system is regressive, i.e., adults have far fewer axons and synapses than newborn infants but more order (Hamburger 1975).
In 1975, Hans W. Kosterlitz and John Hughes identified and named 'enkephalins,' which are pentapeptides with opiate-like activity, rather like endogenous morphine, or endorphins.
In 1975, Edward O. Wilson, in Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, analyzed the social instincts that bring together colonies of ants and bees, herds of antelope, and tribes of chimpanzee and human beings.  His inclusion of the last of these was controversial: His opponents argued that the human animal was not enslaved by instincts, but rather was ruled by culture.  Along with MacArthur and Trivers, Wilson led the emergence of a new paradigm, sociobiology.
In 1975, Richard D. Schwartz reckoned that Herbig-Haro objects are heated gases flowing away from a star.  Subsequently, by extrapolating backward in time, other astronomers deduced the the source was "invariably...a star only a few hundred thousand years old" (Ray 2000:45).
Since 1975, a screen for environmental chemicals, devised by Bruce Ames and colleagues, has been in wide use.  The test "uses histidine-requiring mutant strains of Samonella typhimurium and measures the frequency of back mutations that no longer require histidine supplements" (Hale and Margham 1991:28).
In 1975, Robert W. McCarley and J. Allan Hobson designed the reciprocal-interaction model of sleep cycle control in which waking occurs at the expense of REM sleep and vice-versa.  McCarley recognized that this relation could be described by the equations of Lotka and Volterra.

In 1975, Martin L. Perl, using the Stanford Positron-Electron Ring, discovered traces of an anomolous electron-muon event which he later named the 'tau' lepton, or 'tauon,' a new elementary particle.  The tau lepton is identical to the electron except that it is 3500 times heavier and survives less than a trillion of a second. 
In 1975, Mitchell Feigenbaum created the theory of universality in the rate of bifurcations.
In 1975, David Blackstock and Mary Beth Bennett determined that air, like water, propagates audible ultrasound in a nonlinear way.
In 1975, Holland, in Adaption in Natural and Artificial Systems, propounded the 'schema' theorem, a genetic algorithm to the effect that any compact population of genes, a schema, that offers above average fitness will grow exponentially in the presence of reproduction, crossover, and mutation.
In 1976, Susumu Tonegawa, with the assistance of Nobumichi Hozumi, proved that about 1,000 pieces of genetic material in the variable portion of the B-cell can be shuffled (or translocated or recombined) in different sequences.  This permits the production of antibodies specific for over a billion different antigens, and occurs somatically, i.e., by mutation in the adult organism, not in the germline (Hozumi and Tonegawa 1976; Tonegawa 1976).  This model is "a paradigm for the generation of maximum information storage from a minimal apparatus" (Podolsky and Tauber 1997:95).
In 1976, Dawkins, in The Selfish Gene, coined 'meme,' for bits of information which are replicated, like genes, in selected variants.

In 1976, George P. Smith argued that repeated DNA sequences evolved by random 'unequal crossover' between sister chromosomes (Smith 1976:528). [added 02/01/03]

In 1976, Alexander Rich and S. H. Kim and Klug and colleagues, using X-ray diffraction, described the three-dimensional structure of the transfer RNA molecule (Rich and Kim 1978). [added 02/01/03]

In 1976, Harold Eliot Varmus, J. Michael Bishop, Dominique Stellin, and Peter Vogt proved the theory that cancer has a genetic component by demonstrating that proto-oncogenes are normal genes that have been altered in someway, e.g., that the tumor generating properties of the Rous sarcoma virus are due to a protein encoded by the v-src gene (Bishop 1982). [added 02/01/03]
In 1976, Robert Swanson and Boyer founded Genentech on the premise that patents could replace business secrecy, attracting academic scientists who could still publish.
In 1976, Mircea Steriade showed that in non-REM sleep the transmission of information is inhibited, i.e., certain brain cells are at rest, whereas in REM sleep they are reactivated.
In 1976, Julian Jaynes, in The Rise of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wrote that, before consciousness, the stress of making a decision would instigate an auditory hallucination of a voice which had to be obeyed.  After a certain point in history, perhaps the introduction of writing, what had been innate affects interplay with newly conscious emotions: Shame generates guilt, fear produces anxiety, mating sex, anger hatred, etc.  The behavioral world supplies by metaphor and analogy the referents for mental events: Problems are 'approached' and must be 'grappled with' and solutions are 'clear,' 'obscure,' etc.  We speak of the conscious mind as 'quick' or 'slow,' or somebody as 'strong-' or 'weak-minded' and 'broad-' or 'narrow-minded.'

In 1976, Vera Rubin and colleagues compared the motion of the Milky Way against a frame of reference provided by a spherical shell of distant spiral galaxies and showed that the 'Local Group' is moving through space at 600 kilometers a second, not including the motion of the universal expansion.
In 1976, Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken announced that they had solved the four-color mapping problem by establishing by trial-and-error that there is an unavoidable set of 1,936 graphs of reducible configurations, and then confirming their conclusion by computer.
In 1977, Elso S. Barghoorn excavated fossil bacteria embedded in 3.4 billion year old rock.
In 1977, Gold, in an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal, hypothesized that there is much more oil and natural gas than is available near the surface of the Earth and that this 'deep-Earth-gas' is not of biological origin.  Three years later in a Scientific American article, his argument begins with the observation that "most of the carbon in meteorites...is in the form of complex hydrocarbons with some chemical similarity to oil tars" and follows with a discussion of the implications of "the escape of methane...along the crustal faults and fissures of the tectonic-plate boundaries" (Gold and Soter 1980:154,157).  

In 1977, Jack Corliss, in a diving bell 2600 meters below the surface of the Pacific Ocean, observed boiling, lightless deep-sea thermal vents with hundreds of species, including a nine-foot tube worm, most of them new to science.  This led to an entirely alternative proposal for the origin of life (Corliss et al. 1981:59-69). 
In 1977, Gilbert induced bacteria to produce the non-bacterial proteins insulin and interferon. 
In 1977, groups led by R. J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp discovered split genes in adenovirus 2.  R-loop mapping by L. Chow and S. Berget showed the position of intron loops.  Subsequently, Pierre Champbon described intervening sequences in chicken ovalbumin genes (Roberts et al. 1977; Berget et al. 1977).
In 1977, Ferid Murad discovered that nitric oxide is a vasodilator, and thus controls blood pressure by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the veins.
In 1977, Alfred G. Gilman and E. M. Ross showed that adenylcyclase is regulated by a protein that binds guanosine triphosphate, or GTP.  Guanine nucleotide-binding regulators, or G-proteins, are activated in the presence of GTP.  Activated G-proteins dissociate from their receptors and activate effector proteins, such as adenylcyclase, which control the level of 'second messengers.'  Second messengers are small molecules or ions generated in response to the binding of a signal molecule to its receptor on the outer surface of the cell membrane.
In 1977, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, working with the development of Drosophila eggs, discovered that cell differentiation begins before fertilization at oogenesis with an accumulation of mRNA at what will become the head-end of the egg (Nüsslein-Volhard 1992). Subsequently, it has been learned that about 80 per cent of Drosophila gene products are maternally-derived (Lawrence 1992:7). [revised 02/01/03]
In 1977, Hideki Shirakawa, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Alan J. Heeger announced that they had modified polyacetylene, by blasting it with iodine vapor, and increased its conductivity by a factor of 10 million.  This was accomplished by adding (or subtracting) electrons from the polymer's chain of alternating double and single carbon bonds, in effect, bumping the charge and creating a current.

In 1977, Coleman described the fate of a 'false vacuum' by analogy to the boiling of a superheated fluid, the false vacuum, where bubbles of the vapor phase, the true vacuum, materialize: "Once in a while, a bubble of true vacuum [created by a quantum fluctuation] will form large enough so that it is classically energetically favorable for the bubble to grow.  Once this happens, the bubble spreads throughout the universe converting false vacuum to true" (Coleman 1977:2929).  A false vacuum is a local state of minimum energy which may tunnel to the true vacuum, or general state of minimum energy.  Mathematically, Coleman described the tunneling by a semiclassical bounce solution to Euclidean, i.e., imaginary-time, field equations.
In 1977, James L. Elliott, "monitoring a star's brightness as Uranus passed in front of of it, noticed the signal blinking on and off [and] inferred that a series of narrow bands, slightly elliptical or inclined, circumscribed the planet" (Burns et al. 2002:66).
In 1977, Benoit B. Mandelbrot published The Fractel Geometry of Nature in which complex curves are reduced to straight lines, or fractels, and undergo invariant scaling.  He modified and generalized Zipf's law, demonstrating that fractels and scaling laws are closely related to the chaos of nonlinear dynamics.
In 1977, television signals were transmitted on optical fibers.
In 1978, Mary Leaky announced the discovery of fossilized human footprints from about 3.5 million years ago.
In 1978, Gilbert coined the terms 'intron' and 'exon' in the course of arguing that information for new and potentially useful proteins can be quickly and reversibly assembled from parts, already proven useful, of old proteins.  He called this 'exon shuffling.'
In 1978, Edward B. Lewis announced that genes in the 'bithorax complex' in Drosophila are arranged in the same order along the chromosome as the parts of the body they affect and, during development, turn on in anatomical order, beginning at the head and ending at the anus.  In a sense, therefore, a fly's body is a map of its genes (E. B. Lewis 1978).
In 1978, D. J. Finnegan, G. M. Rubin, Michael W. Young, and D. S. Hogness made detailed analyses of dispersed, repetitive DNAs in Drosophila, which vastly increased the understanding of mutability, transposition, hybrid dysgenesis, and retroviruses in eukaryotes (Finnegan et al. 1978).
In 1978, Vernon B. Mountcastle described a cortical model in terms of its columns being elementary functional units (Mountcastle 1978).
In 1978, Edelman published a study in which inherently variable neuronal groups constitute the units of of epigenetic selection.  Stimuli themselves make the selection, reinforcing or ignoring the connectivity.  Thus genetically identical brains will form different connections as they are exposed to different experiences.  Redundance is created by the formation of a secondary repertoire of connections which respond to signals similar to those which formed them (Edelman 1978).
In 1978, Tonegawa's group revealed the existence of J sequences in light chains of immunoglobin (Tonegawa et al. 1978), but only later that year was their role in V-J shuffling appreciated by Martin Weigart (Weigert et al.1978a).
In 1978, in a joint article by the groups of Weigart and Hood, the somatic mechanism of 'combinatorial joining,' or association, of any class of heavy chain with molecules from any type of light chain was added to the model of antibody diversity (Weigert et al.1978b).
In 1978, Octavio Pompeiano demonstrated that, during REM sleep, sensory nerve terminals are depolarized by signals from the brain stem, thereby reducing the amount of neurotransmitter reaching them and reducing external information.  Moreover, he established that while internal motor commands are generated, inhibitory signals prevent their external activation.

In 1978, Motohiko Yoshimura proposed that X-bosons, very unstable and non-existent on Earth, might have existed during the Universe's first 10-35 second when they would have been the main constituent of matter.  This possibility was soon confirmed when it was found that X-bosons could produce an excess of baryons over antibaryons.
In 1978, Lotfi A. Zadeh published an article on PRUF, or Possibilistic Relational Universal Fuzzy, a logical language where variables represent the degree to which a set is a fuzzy set.  Near a boundary in a fuzzy set, one cannot be sure which side an element is on.
In 1978, Holland published a computer program utilizing bottom-up, learned control with feedback reinforcement or weakening, as appropriate, of the rules, or 'classifiers.'  Relying on this program, 'agents' offer bids for message space in an auction-type market.  The classifiers are treated like business firms who had to repay their suppliers, that is, other classifiers, thus transferring some of their reinforcement.

In 1978, Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adelman proposed "a mathematical procedure whereby a message can be encoded using a large (say 250-digit) number as a key....  Any message encoded with it can only be decoded given a knowledge of the factors of that number" (Deutsch 1997:215).  This method is known as the 'RSA cryptosystem,' and is a type of 'public-key cryptography.'
In 1978, Eleanor Rosch observed that categories, in general, have best examples which she called 'prototypes,' or better, degrees of prototypicality: e.g., substituting Paris for the fashion world or Wall Street for the business world.
["In the late 1970s, elementary particle physicists began speaking of the 'Standard Model' as the basic theory of matter" (Brown et al. 1997:3). "The two types of interactions that Yukawa set out to explain in terms of intermediary particles, i.e., the strong and the weak, could now be viewed, together with classic electromagnetism, as different manifestations of gauge fields, i.e., the color SU(3) and flavor SU(2) x U(1), acting on the fundamental fermions, i.e., quarks and leptons" (Nambu 1985:105).  Fermions, particles of matter with spin ½, are either leptons, including electrons, muons, and tauons and their neutrino counterparts, or quarks, including up, charm, and top and their charge complements, down, strange, and bottom.  Of these, only up and down quarks exist in the ordinary world; the others exist only in high energy events and quickly decay.  Leptons and quarks interact by exchanging generalized quanta, particles of spin 1.  Bosons are particles involved in the transmission of forces and include 'gluons,' which carry the strong force that binds quarks together.  Thus bound together, the quarks form hadrons.  The proton and the neutron which combine to make atomic nuclei are hadrons.  Bosons also include photons, which carry the weakly interacting electromagnetic force, known in the Standard Model as the electroweak force, and attract electrons to orbit the nuclei.  Other weak interactions are carried by the ' W -,' ' W+,' and ' Z' particles.  Additional forces are carried by gravitons and Higgs particles, neither of which have ever been observed, but are required by the theory of General Relativity.]
In 1979, Stanley M. Awramik discovered well-preserved multicelled filaments and microstructures in rocks of the Warrawoona Formation, Australia, which were confirmed in 1991 to be 3,400 million years old.  
In 1979, Michael Potter, Stuart Rudikoff, and D. Narayana Rao used protein sequencing to predict the presence of heavy chain J regions and their role in the diversity of immunoglobin (Rao et al. 1979).
In 1979, David Marr's Vision was published posthumously.  It described the theory of a computational process by which internal representations are thought of as a mapping from one representation to another by way of a 'primal sketch.'  The idea underlying the primal sketch is the pre-understanding of the shapes of objects, which in turn depends on the variation in the light intensities.
In 1979, Toshiki Tajima and John M. Dawson proposed the idea of a 'laser wake-field accelerator:'"When an ultraintense pulse of light strikes a plasma, it propels the electrons forward close to the speed of light....  The plasma's positive ions, being thousands of time heavier than the electrons, are left behind.  This separation of positive and negative charges produces a large electric field, which can be used to accelerate other particles.  The region of high electric field travels through the plasma as a wave, trailing in the wake of the light pulse" (Mourou and Umstadter 2002:830).  Their idea has enabled a new generation of tabletop lasers.  
In 1979, the spacecraft Voyager 1 photographed Jupiter's rings.  
In 1979, Anatol Rapoport, after years of considering the logical conundrum called the 'prisoner's dilemma,' established that the best game theoretical strategy in iterated encounters was the simplest, 'tit-for-tat:' Cooperate in the beginning and then do whatever the other player had done in the previous round.
In 1980, L. Alvarez and Walter Alvarez reported finding in a layer of clay near Gubbio, Italy, a high concentration of 'iridium,' abundant in meteorites, and hypothesized that it is residue from an asteroid of 10 to 14 kilometers diameter.  That the clay had been dated to the end of the Cretaceous era, 65 million years ago, led to their further hypothesis that the impact was the cause of the dinosaurs' mass extinction.  Later in the same year in Yucatan, Mexico, the crater, more than 180 km across, was recognized.  
In 1980, Temin hypothesized that retroviruses originated from retrotransposons.

In 1980, Allan M. Maxam and Gilbert published the 'chemical method' of gene sequencing in which an electric current causes the gene fragments to pass through a gel (i.e., gel electrophoresis) which, when exposed to X-ray film, permits the DNA code to be read (Maxam and Gilbert 1980). [added 02/01/03]
In 1980 [?], Jerome Karle and Herbert Hauptman devised the appropriate constraints mathematically to enable small molecules to be read off an X-ray crystallograph.
In 1980, Jesse Roth and Derek Le Roith and others discovered insulin-like material in single-celled organisms, establishing that the peptide hormone could be produced outside the pancreatic beta cells (LeRoith et al. 1982).
In 1980, Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus characterized zygotic segmentation mutations in Drosophila melanoster (Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus 1980).
In 1980, Hood, Phillip Early, Mark Davis, and others uncovered the D segment in the heavy chains of immunoglobin, and thus V-D-J shuffling (Early et al. 1980).
In 1980, Baltimore and Fredrick W. Alt proposed a model in which following the completion of a light chain, no further rearrangement is possible, and therefore any one B-lymphoid clone will make one type of light chain.  This eventually obviated the allelic exclusion controversies (Alt et al. 1980).

In 1980, David Botstein, Ray White, Mark Skolnick, and R. Davis showed how 'restriction fragment length polymorphisms' (RFLPs) could be used to find human disease genes.
In 1980, Prigogine, in From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences, suggested that oscillations "near bifurcations play a crucial role because there the fluctuation drives the average" (Prigogine 1980:132).  "The best understood example of metabolic oscillation is that which occurs in the glycolytic cycle....  The catalytic effects responsible for the oscillations...lead to a phase shift" (Ibid. 122-123).
In 1980, Klaus von Klitzing, G. Dorda, and M. Pepper found that variation of gate voltage in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) in a strong magnetic field "gave regions in which the current was accurately perpendicular to the electric field, and the entire ratio of current to field [is] constant" (Thouless 1989:232-233). It also conforms to the 'quantum Hall effect;' that is, the current is a multiple of e2/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant.
In 1980, Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig developed 'scanning tunneling microscope,' which brings "a very tiny metal tip within one nanometer [or .001 microns or 4 atoms] of the surface under observation. A small voltage causes electrons to flow from the tip to the surface, creating the tunnel through which feedback to the microscope creates scans of it" (Murphy 2002:3). [revised 02/01/03]

In 1980, Alan Guth proposed an 'inflationary' theory of the early Universe in which, during the first split second of creation and before the standard model of the big-bang, the Universe expanded exponentially, i.e., 'supercooled,' and then, in a phase change, went to a less energetic state.  In this phase change, huge numbers of pairs of particles and very heavy monopoles were created and re-heated in the big-bang (Guth 1981:347-356).  The hypothesis obviates the problems of the Universe's homogeneity and its flatness: "The ultra-rapid expansion stretches out any primordial 'wrinkles' in the the curvature of spacetime, rendering the Universe almost smooth and isotropic [or similar in all directions] on the scale we can observe" (Dictionary of Astronomy 1997:234).

In 1980, the Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network, or MERLIN, came into operation.  It consists of seven radio telescopes distributed across England whose data are gathered at Jodrell Bank.  Its maximum baseline is 217 km.  In the same year, a Very Large Array, or VLA, aperture-synthesis telescope was constructed in Socorro, NM.  It consists of 27 movable dishes mounted on a railway with a maximum baseline of 36 km.
In the early 1980s, Peter E. Wheeler argued that, with the shift to bipedalism, whole body cooling (retaining only head hair and developing sweat glands) released a physiological constraint on brain size in Homo.

In the early 1980s, Hendric Mario Geysen, seeking to devise a vaccine containing the peptides which form the antigenic regions, or epitopes, of viral strains, used mixtures of amino acids to identify the peptides which mimicked the epitopes. He coined the term 'mimotope' for such compounds, the production of which is known as 'combinatorial chemistry.'
In the early 1980s, Marvin Carruthers devised a way to synthesize strands of DNA of any desired base sequence.
In 1981, Thomas R. Cech, working with Tetrahymena, discovered a catalytic RNA molecules with the sophisticated reactivity previously known only in proteins: It could catalyze the cutting and splicing that leads to removal of part of its own length.  An implication is that if RNA can catalyse as well as carry information, it may have evolutionarily preceded protein and DNA (Cech 1986).
In 1981, Stanley B. Prusiner isolated the infectious protein which causes scrapie in sheep and goats and spongiform encephopathies or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people.  Both are transmissible and heritable degenerative diseases of the nervous system, presumably occasioned by misfolded proteins which catalyze other proteins to a similar misfolded state.  Prusiner called this particle a 'prion' and, noting its small size, determined that it had not a single gene (Prusiner 1982).
In 1981, Derek Bickerton published Roots of Language in which he argued that, in Hawaii, "the first creole generation produced rules for which there was no evidence in the previous generation's speech" (Bickerton 1981:60).  The implication of this is that the children made up these rules out of their genetic endowment.

In 1981, David Atkatz and Heinz Pagels explored a model of cosmogenesis in which "the Universe originated as a tunneling event from a classically stable, static spacetime configuration."  The tunneling leads to a "fireball state,...analogous to a single radioactive decay, on a huge scale," and particle creation, which ceases as the expansion continues and the post-big-bang scenario begins (Atkatz and Pagels 1982:2065).

In 1981, Andrei Linde modified Guth's inflationary Universe scenario by examination of the symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the Coleman-Weinberg model and suggesting the potential energy of a 'scalar field' as the mechanism which generated the inflation (Linde 1982:392; Linde 1994:34).  The following year, Andreas Albrecht and Paul J. Steinhardt published, independently, a similar model.
In 1981, James Lovelock built a computerized simulation, Daisyworld, in which the biological and physical worlds are tightly coupled such that the biota ensures optimal physical conditions for itself.  Using only conventional evolutionary rules and by increasing solar radiation a few degrees, a pattern of equilibrium is punctuated by a rapid proliferation of species.
In 1981, Robert Axelrod and Stephanie Forrest confirmed in a computer simulation via the genetic algorithm that a population of coevolving individuals could discover the tit-for-tat strategy which would spread quickly through the community.
In 1981, programmers at Microsoft Corporation developed a computer disk operating system, MS-DOS.  
In 1982, Alt and Baltimore proposed that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, or TdT, could insert the N region, as they chose to call the unencoded, inserted nucleotides, at immunoglobin junction sites (Alt and Baltimore 1982).
In 1982, J. Edwin Blalock discovered interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in which the immune system produces the opoid peptide endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ANTH).  These in turn modulate the behavior of the major types of immune cell.
In 1982, Leder calculated the potential combinatorial antibody diversification at 18 billion according to the formula sm(f1[VxJ]xf2[VxDxJ]), with VxJ and VxDxJ representing the combinatorial diversification achieved by the light and heavy gene segments, f1 representing the factor of light chain flexible joining, f2 representing the combined factors of heavy chain flexible joining and N insertion, and sm representing the factor of somatic point mutation (Leder 1982:111).

In 1982, Gabriel Dover defined 'molecular drive' as the "fixation of variants in a population as a consequence of stochastic and directional processes of family turnover [which] is different [from natural selection and genetic drift] in that it is an outcome of a variety of sequence exchanges [unequal exchange during meiosis leading to duplication or deletion, gene conversion, and DNA transposition] within and between chromosomes that give rise to persistent non-mendelian patterns of inheritance" (Dover 1982:111). [added 02/01/03]

In 1982, Samuelsson discovered 'leukotrienes,' compounds found in white blood cells which are involved in asthma and in the anaphylatic shock that may follow exposure to foreign substances, like bee stings (Samuelsson 1983). [added 02/01/03]
In 1982, Kandel and James H. Schwartz established that long-term facilitation, that is, the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term, requires cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding (CREB) genes (Kandel and Schwartz 1982).
In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first recombinant pharmaceutical, insulin.  
In 1982, Alain Aspect, Jean Dalibard, and Gérard Roger described an experiment which established that what Einstein called 'spooky action at a distance' does exist.  This is not the common sense view which was proffered by him, Podolsky, and Rosen in their 1935 paper.  Twenty years later, J. Bell showed how "Bohm's variation on the E-P-R theme might, in principle, form the basis of a real experiment" (Gribbin 2000:22).  Using using two lasers focused on an atomic beam to provoke the atoms to disgorge two photons simultaneously, the experimenters were able to measure statistically the likelihood that the two photons would be able to vary their randomly-induced polarizations simultaneously and came to the conclusion that they did correlate: i.e., in causally disconnected regions, there was faster than light interaction.  In this way they proved that Bell's inequality was broken (Davies and Brown 1986; Aspect et al. 1982).

In 1982, Alexander Vilenkin, going Tryon one better, suggested a cosmological model in which "the Universe is spontaneously created from literally nothing,...does not have a singularity at the big-bang, and does not require any initial or boundary conditions" (Vilenkin 1982:26,27-28).  He goes on to show how this is mathematically equivalent to electron/positron pair creation/annihilation.
In 1982, John Hopfield proposed a simple computer network which operated along Hebbian lines.  Each of its units could have only two outputs, inhibition or excitation, but numerous inputs.  Moreover, it faintly resembled human memory since any appreciable part of the input pattern acted as an address.
In 1982, Richard Rorty distinguished between 'truth,' as a property "of sentences or actions and situations," and 'Truth,' as "goals or standards..., objects of ultimate concern" (Rorty 1982:xiv).
In 1983, A. Roche-Lecours indicated that humans are probably born with two language areas, but the left area is innately able to soon dominate.
In 1983, Arthur L. Koch published his surface stress theory of microbial morphogenesis.
In 1983, Sidney Altman discovered an enzyme, ribonuclease P, which is intertwined with RNA, and that the RNA alone could weakly catalyse (Guerrier-Takada et al. 1983).
In 1983, Luc Montagnier, François Barre, and Jean-Claude Chermann isolated human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, from acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, patients.  
In 1983, Arthur T. Winfree published predictions on inducing and halting heart fibrillation based on non-linear dynamics and topology.

In 1983, Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer, using the CERN particle accelerator, confirmed the existence of the Z and Ws particles. 
In 1983, Reinhard Mundt and Josef Fried made the first astronomical observations with a 'charge-coupled device,' a semiconductor offering greater sensitivity and contrast than traditional photographic plates.  What they observed were jets from young stars, verifying the extrapolation from Schwartz' reckoning.
In 1983, David Goldberg built a genetic algorithm, classifier system computer program which learned to simulate central control of a gas pipeline, and from which a default hierarchy emerged, i.e., whenever the strong 'leak' message appeared, the default, or weak 'no leak,' disappeared.
In 1983, William Brian Arthur and others published a description of increasing-returns, or positive feedback, that is, "how chance events work to select one equilibrium point from many possible in random processes [permitting economists to] see mathematically how different sets of historical accidents could cause radically different outcomes to emerge" (Arthur, quoted in Waldrop 1992:46).
In 1984, Richard Leaky and Alan Walker excavated a Homo erectus skeleton, dated 1.6 million years ago.
In 1984, Jeremy Thorner and colleagues, using yeast cells, discovered the prototype prohormone processing enzyme, Kex2 endopeptidase (Julius et al. 1984:1075-1089).  Closely related enzymes were later found to be responsible for processing the precursors of all peptide hormones and neuropeptides in mammalian cells.
In 1984, W. McGinnis and W. J. Gehring and colleagues demonstrated that the homeobox gene sequence in Drosophila also exists in the mouse (McGinnis et al. 1984).  This close similarity suggests an essential role in animal development.
In 1984, Yasutomi Nishizuka, having earlier discovered protein kinase C, published a paper in which he showed that it not only had a role in signal transduction but that its uncontrolled production--under the influence of phorbol esters--led to the production of tumors (Nishizuka 1984).

In 1984, George C. Glenner discovered that a principal component of the plaque in the brains of Alzheimers patients was a peptide, now termed beta-amyloid peptide.
In 1984, Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and, independently,  M. Young identified and cloned period, the gene controlling a fruit fly's biological clock (Zehring et al. 1984; Bargiello et al. 1984).
In 1984, Francis O. Schmitt coined the term 'information substances' to include not only neurotransmitters and steroid hormones but peptide hormones, neuropeptides, and growth factors and their receptors.

In 1984, Alec John Jeffreys discovered 'genetic fingerprinting,' the pattern of nonfunctional repetitions unigue to each individual's DNA.
In 1984, Stephen Wolfram, pointing out that cellular automata are similar to non-linear dynamics, contended that all cellular automata fell in one of four 'universality classes.'  The first two classes are either static or orderly, the third is chaotic, and the fourth is complex, like Conway's Game of Life (Wolfram 1984).
In 1985, Kary Banks Mullis and co-workers invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which multiplies DNA sequences in vitro, replacing the cumbersome process of bacterial cloning and making it possible to clone specific DNA sequences rapidly without the need of a living cell (Mullis et al. 1986).
In 1985, Kandel, in Principles of Neural Science, recognized that psychotherapy, that is, the repetition of a 'new' story, changes and reinforces the functional connections between neurons: "Insofar as social intervention, such as psychotherapy or counseling, works, it must work by acting on the brain, and quite lightly on the connections between nerve cells (Kandel 1985:831).
In 1985, Richard E. Smalley, Robert Curl, and Harold W. Kroto, in the course of laboratory experiments designed to mimic carbon clusters, or stardust, discovered 'fullerenes,' or 'buckminsterfullerenes' or 'buckyballs,' molecules of 60 carbon atoms by firing an intense pulse of laser light at a carbon surface in the presence of helium and then cooling the gaseous carbon to near absolute zero.
In 1985, Binning invented the 'atomic force microscope,' which uses "a tip of one atom [of diamond] to read the surface of a material by traveling over it like a needle on a record. It can probe for, image or move individual atoms" (Murphy 2002:3). It works on both conductive and non-conductive surfaces which means it is suitable for use in biotechnology.

In 1985, Edwin D. Loh and Earl D. Spillar, using redshift measurements, reported that a galaxy study showed the density parameter W = 0.9 ± 0.3 with a 95% confidence, i.e., barely closed (Loh and Spillar 1986:L4).
In 1985, Christopher G. Langton deduced the critical lambda (l) value at the exact edge of chaos, and reasoned that Wolfram's cellular automata Class IV, complexity, the phase transition between solid and fluid, and Turing's 'undecidability theorem' are all analogous.
Later in 1985, Stuart A. Kauffman, Norman H. Packard, and J. Doyne Farmer built a computer simulation in which simple polymers could "catalyze the formation of each other, generating autocatalytic sets that evolve in time to create complex chemical species whose properties are tuned for effective collaboration with each other.  The system thus bootstraps itself from a simple initial state to a sophisticated autocatalytic set, which might be regarded as a precurser life form" (Farmer et als 1985:51).  This is based on Kauffman's earlier searches for the origin of order, in which he used an iterating, parallel-processing model of random, self-organizing Boolean networks: Small changes in initial conditions unleashed bifurcating avalanches of changes from which appear the 'attractors' of chaos theory.  Boolean networks are sufficiently similar to cellular automata to permit their assimilation.
In 1986, Dean Falk published data supporting the co-evolution in hominids of brain size and emissary foramina, small holes in the skull which contain blood veins.
In 1986, Howard Cooke hypothesized that the general erosion of telomeric DNA forecasts senescence in humans (Cooke and Smith 1986).
In 1986, the rival clock labs of Young and J. C. Hall and Rosbash determined the complete sequence of letters in the period gene's code.  This means that mutant behavior can be isolated to a single letter; e.g., "at nucleotide 1390, counting from the start of the coding sequence, [if] the letter C is changed to a T, [this] transforms the three-letter word CAG (which means 'glutamate') into the three-letter word TAG (which means 'stop')" (Weiner 1999:173).  Thus the manufacture of period's RNA ceases at this point (F. Jackson et al.1986; Reddy et al. 1986).
In 1986, Colin Masters proposed that Alzheimer's disease is caused by oxidative stress.
In 1986, Hood's lab introduced an automated DNA fluorescence sequencer (L. M. Smith et al. 1986).
In 1986, Per Bak, Chao Tang, and Kurt Weisenfeld, in the course of studying charge-density waves, discovered that self-organized criticality manifests itself like a pile of sand on a plate which is added to in a steady drizzle: Variously sized avalanches spill from the plate according to its power-law, i.e., the average frequency of a given size of avalanche is inversely proportional to some power of its size, e.g., 22 or 24.
In 1986, Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller found a new class of layered materials which semiconduct at much higher temperatures than any which had been found previously.  In a pure state these materials insulate; with impurities they conduct.
In 1986, David Rumelhart, James McClelland, and others, in their book Parallel Distributed Processing, produced the algorithm known as 'the backpropagation of errors,' in which the error is graded, not binary, that is, it differentiates into a non-linear curve, and the network, as a whole, is always adjusted to reduce its errors.
In 1987, Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson erected a genealogical tree which suggested that all human mitochondrial DNA can be traced back to a common African maternal ancestor (Cann et al. 1987).
In 1987, Nüsslein-Volhard and others show that a small group of maternal effect genes determine the polarized pattern in Drosophila embryo development (Nüsslein-Volhard et al. 1987).
In 1987, Hood's lab introduced an automated DNA synthesizer.
In 1987, Hans Reichenbach and Gerhard Hofle separated out of the Sorangian cellulosum strain of myxobacteria, which they had isolated two years earlier, a cell-killing chemical which they named 'epothilone.'
In 1987, James van House and Arthur Rich invented the positron microscope.
In 1987, Ahmed H. Zewail and colleagues, using lasers capable of pulsing in femtoseconds, observed the dissociation of cyanogen iodine (ICN).

In 1987, a supernova, SN 1987A, exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud.  It was "the nearest supernova to have been observed since the invention of the astronomical telescope...and involved the explosion of a star with about seventeen to eighteen solar masses about 160,000 light years away" (Gribbin and Gribbin 2000:176).  The collapsing core produced about 1058 neutrinos, which translates into "100 billion neutrinos [passing] through every square centimeter of the surface of the Earth in the space of about ten seconds" (Ibid.:177). 
In 1987, George Lakoff, in Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things, made a case for embodiment as the basis for meaning and mind: "Truth is very much a bootstrapping operation, grounded in direct links to preconceptually and distinctly structured [personal, physical] experience and the concepts that accord with such experience" (Lakoff 1987:297); that is, image schemas are metaphorically mapped on to the corresponding abstract configuration, e.g., categories are understood in terms of container schemas, hierarchical structure is understood in terms of part-whole and up-down schemas, relational structure is understood in terms of link schemas, radial structure in terms of center-peripheral schemas, foreground-background structure in terms of front-back scemas, and linear quantity scales in terms of up-down and linear order scemas.  Mark Johnson, who, in the same year, published The Body in the Mind, made a similar case.
In 1988, W. A. Devane discovered a cannabinoid receptor, CB1, which is the most abundant member of the brain's G-protein-coupled family and even approaches the glutamate receptor in quantity (Devane et al. 1988).

In 1988, Etienne Baulieu developed the RU-486 abortion pill. [added 02/01/03]

In 1988, Antonio Coutinho and Francisco Varela, in an early offspring of Jerne's network theory, pointed out that "the only valid sense of immunological self is the one defined by the dynamics of the network itself. What does not enter into its cognitive domain is ignored (i.e., [nonself] is nonsense)" (Varela et al. 1988:365). [added 02/01/03]
In 1988, Corey isolated and synthesized the active substance in an extract from the ginkgo tree, ginkgolid B, which interferes with platelet activating factor.

In 1988, Alfred Shapere and Wilczek, while studying the gauge theory of locomotion, concluded that, in viscous fluids, micro-organisms swim using "wave-like motions symmetric about the axis of propulsion.  The waves propagate from front to rear, achieving maximum amplitude near the middle" (Shapere and Wilczek 1989:575).
In 1988, Packard published "Adaption to the Edge of Chaos," and Kauffman, acknowledging that at the border between order and chaos lies complexity, i.e., life and its constraints, added selection to his computer model.  Life without selection, describable in Kauffman's model, provides a 'null hypothesis,' or a baseline, which can "be used to detect the perturbing effects of selection or other 'agents' of evolutionary change" (Burian and Richardson 1991:269).
In 1989, John L. Hall, Z. Ramanis, and David J. L. Luck published their discovery of centriole-kinetosome DNA, which travels in mitosis, packaged as its own 'motility' chromosome.
In 1989, Folkman proposed the theory that tumors contain both stimulators and inhibitors of angiogenesis to explain tumor metastases after the tumor is removed (Folkman 1990).

In 1989, Penrose, in The Emperor's New Mind, denied that "the outward manifestations of conscious mental activity [can] be simulated by calculation."  He went on to speculate that the conscious brain may be achieving "its nonalgorithmic effects" in the mathematical gap between physics and quantum theory (Penrose 1990:705).

In 1989, Pauling and Matthias Rath, on the theory that 'lipoprotein a,' or Lp(a), is necessary for the repair of over-stressed blood vessels, hypothesized that the higher the blood concentration (by supplementation) of the amino acid lysine the more likely it is that Lp(a) molecules will bind with this lysine, rather than the lysine which has already been attached to the Lp(a) lubricating the blood vessel walls.
In 1989, John Byl devised a self-reproducing automata so small, twelve cells in six states with fifty-seven transition rules, that it undermines "von Neumann's 'complexity threshold' separating trivial from non-trivial self-replication" (Sigmund 1993:24).
In 1989, Richard Palmer and Arthur built a computer simulation of the stock market in which agents taught themselves a sort of primitive technical analysis which led to bubbles and crashes.
In 1989, Holland built the ECHO artificial life simulation, a complex adaptive system, which provided "a distinction between phenotype and genotype, so that the fitness of a genotype depends on interactions of the phenotype with other agents and the local environment," complete exogamy, and analogs of "sophisticated ecological processes, such as biological arms races and speciation" (Holland 1995:48-49).

In 1989, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard built a quantum computer in which "messages are encoded in the states of individual photons emitted by a laser."  This computer consisted of a pair of quantum cryptographic devices which are by their nature secure: "If one makes any measurement [i.e., eavesdrops] on a quantum system, one alters its subsequent interference properties" (Deutsch 1997:218).

In 1990, Steven Pinker and Paul Bloom maintained that languages, including all linguistic universals, are naturally selected biological adaptions by Homo sapiens to communicate information, not a side effect of other evolutionary forces, the position held by Chomsky (Chomsky 1972:97), Gould, and others.  Pinker and Bloom based their claim on the facts that "language show signs of complex design for the communication of propositional structures, and the only explanation for the origin of organs with complex design [e.g., the eye] is the process of natural selection" (Pinker and Bloom 1990:726).
In 1990, W. French Anderson performed the first gene transplant on a human being, injecting engineered genes into a four-year-old to repair her faulty immune system.
In 1990, J. Milicki, K. Schughart, and W. McGinnis introduced a mouse gene into a Drosophila embryo, establishing that, in animals that have been evolving independently for hundreds of millions of years, genes will generate products that function interchangeably.
In 1990, teams led by Robin Lovell-Badge and Robin Goodfellow isolated the testis-determining factor gene, the master switch for mammalian sex determination.  This they named SRY, for sex-determining region, Y chromosome.  When introduced into newly fertized mouse eggs, it caused genetic females to develop into males.

In 1990, Howard Hall demonstrated that conscious intervention, e.g., guided imagery and biofeedback, could increase the stickiness of white blood cells.

In 1990, Andrew Simon Bell, David Brown, and Nicholas Kenneth Terrett patented 'sildenafil citrate,' a pyrazolopyrimidinone antianginal which dilated blood vessels, increasing the flow of blood and, incidently, under the name 'Viagra,' proving to be a useful treatment for erectile impotence.
In 1990, Jan Sapp, in Where the Truth Lies: Franz Moewus and the Origins of Molecular Biology, reflects on partisan representations of scientific roots, bias in gathering and interpreting data, the social negotiation of standards, especially for new paradigms,the technique problem in the replication of experiments, and the 'experimentalist-statistician paradox,' where data can be good to be true.'  Far from being purely deductive, it is scientists' "anticipation of results that informs them of what experiments to perform...and what data to report....  'The scientific paper' is...rhetoric" (Sapp 1990:116), and the science student's "version of 'truth' is closely associated with getting an 'A'" (Sapp 1990:306).  The scientist decontextualizes knowledge, and the historian recontextualizes it (Sapp 1990:301).

In 1990, the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the Hubble Space Telescope, or HST.  Servicing missions were carried out in 1993, 1997, and 2002.  [revised 8/19/02]
In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee and CERN, The European Organization for Nuclear Research, implemented a hypertext system for information access for physicists.
In 1990, Walter Fontana built a computer simulation which he called algorithmic chemistry, or 'alchemy.'  In it he exploited the fact that computer code is both a program and a data string: Program A reads program B as input data and interpretes it as program C.  From the random interaction of a vast accumulation of these program strings emerges a variety of catalytic responses.

In 1990, Stephen Muggleton published software, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), which permits a computer to be fed knowledge and then assimilate that knowledge into a theory, look for further implications that arise from that theory, and come up with ideas that are different from the initial input. 
Beginning in 1990, Fred Wendorf and colleagues uncovered on the Nabta Playa, Egypt, the earliest-known megalithic astronomical calendar site.
In 1991, D. R. Knighton and colleagues determined the three-dimensional structure of the catalytic core of protein kinase.
In 1991, J. C. Hall, Charalambos P. Kyriacou, Rosbash, and colleagues cloned the period gene of Drosophila simulans, injected it into the egg of a Drosophila melanogaster, with the result that the rhythmic 'song' behavior of simulans was performed by melanogaster.
In 1991, John R. Lawrence, Douglas E. Campbell, and J. William Costerton, studying the structure of biofilms by laser scanning confocal microscopy, demonstrated that bacteria grow in tiny enclaves.

In 1991, Sumio Iijima observed nanoscopic threads, now known as 'nanotubes.'  These are hollow cylinders made of pure carbon lattices, as regular and symmetric as crystals, and reminiscent of buckyballs.
In 1992, Gold, extending his deep-Earth-gas theory, hypothesized that early life began in the rocks of the 'deep, hot biosphere,' kilometers below the Earth's surface.  "This life is not dependent on solar energy and photosynthesis for its primary energy supply, [which comes instead] from chemical sources, due to fluids that migrate upward from deeper levels in the Earth" (Gold 1992:6045).  Presumably some of this anerobic bacteria migrated still farther upward into the sunlight and evolved into more complex life-forms.

In 1992, Robin I. M. Dunbar said the neocortex volume and group size among primates suggest that "the number of neocortical neurons limits the organism's information-processing capacity and that this then limits the number of relationships that an individual can monitor simultaneously....  Thus [it] appears...large groups are created by welding together sets of smaller grooming cliques" (Dunbar 1992:469).
In 1992, a team led by Raphael Mechoulam and Devane discovered the first endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter, anandamide, an arachidonic acid derivative (Devane et al. 1992).
In 1992, Robert D'Amato deduced that the mechanism by which thalidomide operates is angiogenic inhibition, the inhibition of the generation of blood vessels.

IIn 1992, Irun R. Cohen said that the "aim of the immune system is not to distinquish self and nonself.... It is to enhance fitness" (Cohen 1992:442). [added 02/01/03]
In 1992, the United States' COBE, or 'Cosmic Background Explorer,' astronomical satellite detected very small variations, or ripples or lumps, in the background cosmic radiation which are thought to be imprints of quantum fluctuations from the early Universe, or, in other words, the seeds of later giant structures.  This radiation was much stronger than anticipated.
In 1992, CERN released to the public their hypertext for physicists, naming it the World Wide Web.
In 1993, J. William Schopf announced the discovery of fossilized bacteria in 3.5 billion-year-old rocks from Western Australia.

In 1993, Ephriam J. Fuchs suggested that "injury by pathogen (rather than self-nonself discrimination) would serve as a plausible fulcrum for molding immune responses within an evolutionary context" (Podolsky and Tauber 1997:365; Fuchs 1993). [added 02/01/03]

In 1993, Allen D. Roses and Warren J. Stritmatter isolated apolipoprotein E, or APOE, which transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and is involved in cellular repair and regeneration.
In 1993, Dean H. Hamer and colleagues produced evidence employing polymerase chain reaction that male homosexuality is preferentially transmitted through the maternal side and is genetically linked to chromosomal region Xq28, which is thought to contain several hundred genes.
In 1993, C. Robert Dell and collaborators, using the Hubble space telescope, saw swirling disks of gas and dust, such as Laplace had predicted, within the constellation Orion.

In 1993, the United States National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Very Long Baseline Array, or VLBA, of interferometers, i.e., a VLBI, was completed.  It consists of ten telescopes spread across the United States with a maximum baseline of 8000 km and is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, or NRAO.
In 1993, Marc Andreeson and others developed a graphical user interface for the World Wide Web, called 'Mosaic X.'
In 1994, W. C. Orr and R. S. Sohal constructed transgenic lines of Drosophila having extra copies of the genes for the antioxident enzymes catalase and super oxide dismutase, which slowed the aging process.
In 1994, Polly Matzinger, following Fuchs' lead, hypothesized that what the immune system recognizes is danger to the organism, rather than making a distinction between the self and nonself.  In her reanalysis, she found that antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, make the distinction between dangerous and harmless.  With the benefit of an alarm signal, APCs are able to deliver the second signal in the two signal model to T-cells.  B-cells receive the second signal from activated helper T-cells (Matzinger 1994).
In 1994, Jerry Yin cloned a Drosophila gene which makes cyclic-AMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein.  This protein is a toggle swithch, activating or deactivating memory genes (Yin et al. 1994).  Yin, Tim Tully, Quinn and a few colleagues proved this by injecting Drosophila with a second CREB gene, switching it on, and testing the flies' long-term memory, which was now extraordinary (Yin et al. 1995).
In 1994, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Chang-Ying Ling, Wen Shan Yu, and, independently, Anat Barnea and Fernando Nottebohm established the neurogenesis, including both new neurons and the replacement of old ones, occurs in adult song birds (Alvarez-Buylla et al. 1994:233-248; Barnea and Nottebohm 1994:11217-11221).
In 1994, Gerard Foschini proposed modifying Shannon's information theory so that, instead of points, spatial volumes could be linked by means of multiplying transmitters and receivers.  A set of high-speed processors "look at the signals from all the receiver antennas simultaneously, [extracting] the strongest signal from the jumble, then [working] through the weaker signals one by one" (Mullins 2000:36).

In 1994, Peter Shor discovered a quantum computer algorithm for factoring large numbers, implicitly rendering RSA cryptosystems vulnerable someday.
In 1995, J. Craig Ventner and many colleagues published the first complete nucleotide sequence of a free-living organism, Haemophilus influenzae.
In 1995, R. Sherrington, Peter H. St. George-Hyslop, and Gerald D. Shellenberg and many colleagues isolated and characterized two genes responsible for early-onset, familial Alzheimer's disease.
In 1995, Staffan Kjellerberg and Peter Steinberg established that Delisea pulchra, a red algae, "uses chemicals called 'substituted furanones' to keep free of [bacterial] biofilms....  Apparently, the substituted furanones bind to bacterial cells at the sites normally used by other signals" thus blocking them (Costerton and Stewart 2001:81).

In 1995, Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman created the first gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates, using laser cooling and a 'time-averaging orbiting potential magnetic trap,' or TOP trap, inside a vacuum chamber. Later that year, Wolfgang Ketterle and colleagues achieved a Bose-Einstein condensate of much higher densities by 'plugging' the magnetic field hole with a laser.  The laser's photons pushed the escaping atoms back into the trap (Davis et al. 1995). 
In 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz detected the first extra-solar planet using the 'wobble technique:' Inferring the orbit and minimum mass of a planet by periodic Doppler shifts as a star is pulled by the force of a planet's gravity. The planet circles the star 51 Pegasi in the constellation Pegasus.
In 1996, Folkman found angiostatin, a molecule that inhibits angiogenesis more powerfully than thalidomide.

In 1996, Matzinger, Fuchs, and J. P. Ridge, by increasing the ratio of dendritic cells to B-cells, were able to show experimentally that neonatal mice would respond to foreign antigen (Ridge et al. 1996). This disproved Medawar's theory that immunological tolerance existed at birth. [added 02/01/03]
In 1996, Leland H. Hartwell led a team from the Seattle Project in deciphering the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or baker's yeast.  This was the first organism with a nucleus to have its genome deciphered.  38 percent of yeast proteins are similar to known mammalian proteins.

In 1996, Michael Rowan-Robinson and colleagues, using the ESA's Infrared Space Observatory, or ISO, found excess infrared radiation and suggested that light from newly forming stars, perhaps at their stage of heavy metal production, is being absorbed by dust particles and re-emitted as infrared radiation.
In 1997, Joseph Kirschvink presented evidence that the Earth's axis of rotation moved 90 degrees to what had formerly been the equator.  This it did in a geologically brief amount of time at the beginning of the Cambrian era.

In 1997, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell cloned a sheep, 'Dolly,' from adult cells.
In 1997, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, or Fermilab, conducted an experiment which provided the first direct evidence of the existence of the 'tau neutrino.'
In 1997, Tian Yu Cao, in Conceptual Developments of 20th Century Field Theories, in claiming that "metaphysical assumptions are indispensible for physics," asserted that, with the replacement of the Aristotelian telos, all developments "can be regarded as being driven by searching for a model, mechanical or otherwise, for describing forces, understood as causal agents....  The assumption [by the historically emergent hypothico-deductive method] of some ultimate ontology in a theory provides the basis for reducing some set of entities to another simpler set, thus endowing the theory with a unifying power" (Cao 1997:xvii-xviii).  The question of the "concrete mechanism for transmitting force...is so central to the subsequent development of physics that it actually defines the internal logic of the development" (Ibid.:8).
In 1998, Robert Waterston and John E.Sulston and numerous colleagues reported the mapping of the entire genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. About 33 percent of this worm's proteins are similar to those found in mammals.

In 1998, Shellenberg identified a mutation in the tau gene by looking at patients with frontotemporal dementia characterized by a buildup of tau.
In 1998, vascular endothelial growth factor genes were therapeutically inserted in a human heart and formed new blood vessels.
In 1998, Richard S. Stephens and colleagues mapped the 900 genes in the genome of Chlamydia trachomatis.

In 1998, James Thomson isolated human embryonic stem cells.  Shortly thereafter and independently, Ariff Bongso also isolated human embryonic stem cells. 
In 1998, Andrea G. Bodnar and colleaques confirmed Cooke's hypothesis that the erosion of telomeres forecasts senescence (Bodnar et al. 1998).  [revised 02/01/03]
In 1998, Alan Sokal and Jean Bricmont distinguished between "knowledge (understood, roughly, as justified true belief) and mere belief," and added that, if one does not "take into account empirical aspects, then scientific discourse indeed becomes nothing more than a 'myth' or  'narration'" (Sokal and Bricmont 1998:195,197).
In 1999, Jochen J. Brocks and colleagues published their discovery of fossil molecular lipids which push back the horizon for eukaryotes to around 2.5 billion years ago.
In 1999, Paul A. Moore and numerous colleagues discovered and characterized B-Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS), a monocyte-produced growth factor molecule which causes B-cells to produce antibodies.
In 1999, Ian Dunham and 129 colleagues from the Human Genome Project announced the sequencing of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22.
In 1999, Angelo Vescovi showed that mouse brain stem cells could produce blood cells.

In 1999, Jean-Loup Puget and Guilaine Lagache, analyzing data from the ISO photometers, concluded that the lumps in the infrared background are coming from ultraluminous primordial galaxies.  ISO's 60-centimeter telescope has a resolving power 25 times that of COBE's best effort.

In 1999, Wendy Freeman announced the results of HST's refinement of the Hubble constant: The Universe is expanding at a rate of 21 kilometers per second per million light-years which translates to an age of the Universe of approximately 12 billion years.  A few weeks later, radio astronomers Jim Herrnstein, James Moran, Lincoln Greenhill, and colleagues, using the NSF's VLBA, measured a distance of 23.5 million light-years to a galaxy called NGC 4258 and found a different revised value for the Hubble constant which translates to an age of 10.2 billion years.
In 2000, teams led by Martin Schwab and Stephen Strittmatter published their identificaton of a gene, dubbed nogo, which codes for a protein, found in the protective sheaths of nerve cells, that blocks the regrowth of nerve cells in the brain and spine.
In 2000, Ventner led a team which sequenced Drosophila melanogaster's genome.  60 percent of known human disease genes have equivalents in this fruit fly, including p53, the so-called tumor suppressor gene which when mutated permits rampant cell division.  About 50 percent of fly proteins are similar to mammalian proteins.
In 2000, Hervé Tettelin, Ventner, and numerous colleagues sequenced the genome of Neisseria meningitidic Serogoup B strain MC58, a bacterial agent which causes meningitis and septicemia, especially in infants.
In 2000, groups from the Human Genome Project under the leadership of André Rosenthal and Yoshiyuki Sakaki mapped the sequence of human chromosome 21, the smallest chromosome.  A duplicate of this chromosome or additional genes from it produces Down syndrome.
In 2000, Thomas A. Steitz, Nenad Ban, Poul Nissen, and colleagues resolved the atomic structure of the large subunit  of a ribosome of a bacteria, Haloarcula marismortui, using X-ray crystallography.  As proteins "are largely absent from the regions of the subunit that are of primary functional significance to protein syntheses" (Ban et al. 2000:905), the view that RNA preceded proteins at the origin of life is supported.
In 2000, Sakaki and colleagues sequenced the bacterium Buchnera's single chromosome and established its symbiosis with its host, Aphid cells: Of Buchnera's 583 genes, 54 code for enzymes dedicated to making the Aphid's essential amino acids.  In return, since Buchnera lacks most of the genes essential to the construction of its cell membrane, the Aphid cells provide them (Shigenobu et al. 2000:81-86).
In 2000, Karl Gebhardt, John Kormendy, Douglas Richstone, and, independently, Laura Ferrarese and David Merritt determined that the mass of a black hole correlates with the average velocity of the stars within its ellipsoidal host.  This supports theories that quasars are growing black holes.
In 2000, Vescovi's team demonstrated that mouse brain stem cells could turn into muscle cells after coming into physical contact with those cells.
In 2000, Cornelia M. Weyand and colleagues found that rheumatoid arthritis patients had age-inappropriate deterioration of telomeres in T-cells, rather than overactive immune systems as had previously been thought (Koetz 2000:9203).

In 2000, Pasko Rakic and collaborators discovered that astrocytes are the brain cells which arose from stem cells and differentiated into neurons.

In 2000, The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative sequenced the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, or thale cress, a flowering plant, finding 25,498 genes in five chromosomes encoding proteins from 11,000 families, similar to the functional diversity of Drosophila and Caenorhabdidtis elegans (Arabidopsis Genome Initiative:2000:796).
In 2000, Peter J. Oefner, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, and an international team erected a phylogenetic tree, based on binary polymorphisms associated with the non-combining region of the human Y-chromosome, which indicated the most recent common male ancestor lived 40,000-140,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa 35,000-89,000 years ago (Underhill 2000:358-361).Peter A. Underhill, Cavalli-Sforza, and a somewhat different team determined the origin of the present Europeans also using nonrecombining Y-chromosome binary markers.  They found three waves of immigration, the first about 40,000 years ago from Central Asia, the second about 25,000 years ago from the Middle East, and the third, only about 20% of the total, from Neolithic farmers who came from the Near East (Semino and Passarino 2000:1155-1159).

In 2000, Hideo Ohno led a team which demonstrated a way to manipulate the magnetic, or quantum spin, properties of an indium manganese arsenide transistor device by employing an electric field.  This differs from electronic devices in using spin rather than electron properties and is similar to a computer hard-disk drive which uses a magnetic field to write information to a disk surface.

In 2000, Lorenzo Pavesi and colleagues demonstrated that light amplification is possible by forcing an electron to recombine with the hole from which it wandered away when excited.  This can be accomplished by confining the pair inside a silicon nanocrystal (Pavesi 2000:440-444).

In 2000, Karl Gebhardt, John Kormendy, Douglas Richstone, and, independently, Laura Ferrarese and David Merritt determined that the mass of a black-hole correlates with the average velocity of stars within its ellipsoidal host.  This supports theories that quasars are growing black-holes.

In 2001, Ventner, representing Celera Genomics, and Francis Collins, representing Human Genome Project, jointly published their decoding of the human genome.  Their rapid sequencing progress was permitted by the automatic sequencer ABI PRISM  3700 DNA Analyzer, developed by Michael Hunkapiller.  Assembling the fragments of the genome into a complete sequence depended on computer programs developed by Phillip Green.

In 2001, Ventner, Mark Adams, and colleagues completed a genetic map of the laboratory mouse, finding that the length of its genetic code is 10% smaller than anticipated.

In 2001, Roger Cayrel reported his team's finding of the age of the Universe to be at least 12.5 billion years old, give or take 3 billion.  This number is extrapolated from the age of a very old star named CS31082-001, arrived at using a spectroscope attached to ESA's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal, Chile, to measure the abundances of the radioactive element thorium-232.

In 2001, Richard Ellis, Michael R. Santos, Jean-Paul Kneib, and Konrad Kuijken discovered a star cluster 13.4 billion light years from Earth, employing a combination of the W. W. Keck Telescope and the HST with a gravitational lens, two billion light years away, the star cluster Abell 2218.  The significance of their discovery lies in its age, an age when the Universe was several hundred times denser than today. [added 02/01/03]

In 2002, Manindra Agrawal developed a method for determining with complete certainty whether or not a number is a prime number. [added 02/01/03]
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